Everything we thought we knew about the moon’s origins is probably wrong

September 20, 2016 by  
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Everything we thought we knew about the moon’s origins is probably wrong, according to a new study written by two Harvard scientists. The leading theory since the 1970’s suggests a Mars-sized object scratched Earth in a ” giant impact event ,” leading to the moon . But new analysis of moon rocks reveals the collision that led to the moon was likely far more violent than we thought, which could offer insight into what the solar system was like long ago. Kun Wang and Stein B. Jacobsen, who are both affiliated with the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard , scrutinized ” old Apollo samples from the ’70’s ” with better technology than was available 40 or more years ago. They found elements that couldn’t fully be explained by the old theory, including ” heavy isotopes of potassium .” The process to separate out those potassium isotopes would have needed super hot temperatures. Those temperatures could have resulted after a very violent collision. Related: The Moon was created when young Earth collided with another planet, says new study Wang told Gizmodo, “We need a much, much bigger impact to form a moon according to our study. The giant impact itself should be called extremely giant impact. The amount of energy required isn’t even close.” Instead of the Mars-sized object scraping Earth, the collision would have been more akin to a “sledgehammer hitting a watermelon.” The collision was so hot and forceful that the scientists think some of Earth actually vaporized. When the vapor cooled, it condensed into our moon. Nature published their study online this week. The new information about the moon’s origins led the scientists to think long ago, the solar system could have been a lot more violent and volatile. They think the moon rocks could hold more secrets about the ” early solar system ” and plan to keep probing the samples for more thrilling hints about the past. Via Gizmodo Images via Pixabay and Wikimedia Commons

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Everything we thought we knew about the moon’s origins is probably wrong

Did Removing Lead From Gasoline Cause Violent Crime to Plummet?

January 18, 2013 by  
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Research in recent years has uncovered a strong connection between reductions in lead pollution and the decline in violent crime in the U.S. Writing in Mother Jones this month, Kevin Drum discusses the research of Rick Nevin , a consultant who began researching lead pollution during the 1990s for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Nevin’s research has shown that the rise and fall of atmospheric lead produced by leaded gas closely corresponds to a similar rise and fall of violent crime. Violent crime rates, writes Drum, “followed the same upside-down U pattern. The only thing different was the time period: Crime rates rose dramatically in the ’60s through the ’80s, and then began dropping steadily starting in the early ’90s. The two curves looked eerily identical, but were offset by about 20 years.” In a paper published in Environmental Research in May 2000, Nevin demonstrated, Drum says, that “if you add a lag time of 23 years, lead emissions from automobiles explain 90 percent of the variation in violent crime in America. Toddlers who ingested high levels of lead in the ’40s and ’50s really were more likely to become violent criminals in the ’60s, ’70s, and ’80s.” In a 2007 Environmental Research paper , Nevin used worldwide data to support the same conclusion in country after country. In a working paper published in 2007 by the National Bureau of Economic Research , Jessica Wolpaw Reyes used state-by-state data to show that “the reduction in childhood lead exposure in the late 1970s and early 1980s is responsible for significant declines in violent crime in the 1990s” and that that reduction “may cause further declines into the future.” This year, a paper in Science Direct by researchers from Tulane and Colorado State universities established the same correlation in six U.S. cities. Drum writes, “Groups of children have been followed from the womb to adulthood, and higher childhood blood lead levels are consistently associated with higher adult arrest rates for violent crimes.” Violent crime used to be disproportionately high in large cities compared with small ones. Big cities typically have a lot of cars in a small area. In the post-World War II era, that meant high concentrations of lead in the atmosphere. But as atmospheric lead decreased, so did the disconnect in violent crime between large and small cities. Now the rates are similar. Neurological research has now proven the connection between lead and brain damage. Drum writes that “it turns out that childhood lead exposure at nearly any level can seriously and permanently reduce IQ.” According to the EPA , “there currently is no demonstrated safe concentration of lead in blood, and adverse health effects can occur at lower concentrations.” Research has shown that high lead exposure during childhood results in damage to the part of the brain that controls aggression. Even very small blood levels have been connected to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, writes Drum, lead is still a danger today. Much of the lead that was emitted during the postwar period persists in the soil and can be reintroduced into the atmosphere through dust. Also, many older buildings still contain old lead paint. Cleanup of lead from soil and old window frames (the most dangerous location) would cost about $20 billion yearly for the next 20 years, Drum estimates. That sounds like a lot, but he also estimates the benefits at up to $150 billion per year. + Rick Nevin Via Mother Jones Photo credits: Tailpipe by Ruben de Rijcke via Wikimedia Commons; Handcuffs by .v1ctor. via Flickr

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Did Removing Lead From Gasoline Cause Violent Crime to Plummet?

Ephemeral Screen Printed Ice Decorates a Room at Sweden’s Ice Hotel

January 18, 2013 by  
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Read the rest of Ephemeral Screen Printed Ice Decorates a Room at Sweden’s Ice Hotel Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: eco design , Eszter Augustine Sziksz , green design , ICe Hotel Sweden , LED lights , Nikilla Carroll , screen printed ice , sustainable design

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Ephemeral Screen Printed Ice Decorates a Room at Sweden’s Ice Hotel

Architects and Building Professionals Team Up To Rebuild London After the Riots

August 12, 2011 by  
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Since a fatal shooting on August 4, riots have swept across London and spread to other parts of England. Rioters have been looting stores, robbing homes, setting fire to buildings, and destroying property in a myriad of ways. While the violence has been somewhat curbed, the riots are still not over, and for those devastated by the destruction, they need all the help they can get. To offer some aid, architects Nick Varey and Lee Wilshire joined together to launch Riot Rebuild , an initiative that aims to bring together architects, building professionals, and able volunteers who are willing to donate their time and skills to rebuilding. Read the rest of Architects and Building Professionals Team Up To Rebuild London After the Riots Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: 2011 england riots , 2011 london riots , architects london riots , builders london riots , construction workers london riots , croydon riots , england riots , habitables , lee wilshire , liverpool riots , london riots , london riots clean up , nick vary , rebuilding london , riot rebuild , riot rebuild innitiative , Sustainable Building , tottenham riots

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Architects and Building Professionals Team Up To Rebuild London After the Riots

Scientists Isolate Plant Gene That Could Lead to Cheaper, More Efficient Ethanol Production

August 12, 2011 by  
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A research team at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) has isolated the gene that controls the amount of ethanol production a microorganism is capable of. Isolating the gene, which is called clostridium thermocellum, could allow scientists to experiment with altering a part of the microorganism’s DNA to make it produce more ethanol from a single plant. Currently, ethanol requires an expensive enzyme, a lot of water and a lot of land to create sufficient amounts of energy . With this latest discovery, scientists could engineer plants that make ethanol to produce larger amounts with fewer resources. Read the rest of Scientists Isolate Plant Gene That Could Lead to Cheaper, More Efficient Ethanol Production Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: best biofuel crops , best ethanol crops , biofuel , biofuel crops , clean burning fuel , clean transportation , efficient biofuel crops , efficient ethanol crops , ETHANOL , ethanol crops , green transportation , more efficient biofuel , plants that produce biofuel , plants that produce ethanol

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Scientists Isolate Plant Gene That Could Lead to Cheaper, More Efficient Ethanol Production

Divine Jaffa Apartment in Israel Restores Vaulted Walls to Their Former Glory

August 12, 2011 by  
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Read the rest of Divine Jaffa Apartment in Israel Restores Vaulted Walls to Their Former Glory Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: eco building , eco design , Green Building , Israel , Jaffa , Jaffa Apartment , mediterranean sea , natural light , natural stone , Pitsou Kedem , refurbished , Sustainable Building , Tel Aviv

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Divine Jaffa Apartment in Israel Restores Vaulted Walls to Their Former Glory

Paddington Walk Gardens: 3 Rooftop Sanctuaries That Travel the World Without Leaving London

August 12, 2011 by  
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Read the rest of Paddington Walk Gardens: 3 Rooftop Sanctuaries That Travel the World Without Leaving London Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: Eco Architecture , eco design , Gillespies , green architecture , green design , green roof , london green roof , paddington , paddington walk , planted roof , roof garden , sustainable design

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Paddington Walk Gardens: 3 Rooftop Sanctuaries That Travel the World Without Leaving London

Solar Energy Champion Rep. Gabrielle Giffords Shot in Tuscon, Arizona

January 8, 2011 by  
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photo via AP Arizona Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, and 17 others, was shot today at a public event in her district. The horrible crime is being condemned all over the country by civic leaders, and it is a grim reminder of the violence that can be unleashed by hateful, irresponsible rhetoric.

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Solar Energy Champion Rep. Gabrielle Giffords Shot in Tuscon, Arizona

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