Teens exposed to air pollution more likely to experience psychotic episodes, new study says

April 1, 2019 by  
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Air pollution may have more long-term effects on teens than previously thought. A new study conducted in the U.K. found that adolescents who are exposed to pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, harmful particles and nitrogen dioxide , are more likely to experience psychotic episodes during their teen years. People living in densely populated, urban areas have increased risks of having clinical psychosis. This includes disorders like schizophrenia. Prior to the new study, researchers had yet to start any long-term projects that explore the relationship between air pollution and these mental disorders, despite pollution becoming a growing issue in urban locations. Related: Air pollution is killing Europeans at an alarming rate The new study, published in  Jama Psychiatry ,  looked at more than 2,200 children in the U.K. and examined the link between air pollution and mental health . The study was conducted over an 18 year period and included children from various socioeconomic backgrounds and geographic locations. In over 92 percent of the cases, the test subjects reported some kind of psychotic experience, such as having intense paranoia or hearing voices. “We found that adolescent psychotic experiences were more common in urban areas,” explained Joanne Newbury, one of the lead scientists on the study at King’s College London. Newbury added that they were unable to directly link the psychotic experiences of teens in the study with air pollution. Their findings, however, strongly suggest that these harmful chemicals are a contributing factor in the connection between urban populations and psychosis. It should be noted that the study took into account biological factors, and the scientists admitted that psychosocial mechanisms, such as stress, could also be at work. By 2050, experts estimate that over 70 percent of the world’s human population will be living in cities. With more and more people gravitating toward urban locations, it is vastly important that we discover why city dwellers are more susceptible to mental disorders. Although there are likely multiple connections to be made, the harmful gases and particles that commonly make up air quality should not be ignored. According to King’s College London , scientists hope to initiate more studies on the link between air pollution and psychosis, with long-term research being the key focal point. + Jama Psychiatry Via EcoWatch and  King’s College London Image via David Holt

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Teens exposed to air pollution more likely to experience psychotic episodes, new study says

NYC considers Manhattan land expansion to fight climate change

March 19, 2019 by  
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On Thursday March 14, Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York City unveiled a $10 billion plan to prepare lower Manhattan for the inevitable invasion of sea level rise predicted with climate change. The plan was announced alongside the release of the Lower Manhattan Climate Resilience Study , which provides a complete assessment of predicted climate risks, including sea level rise, storm surge, extreme rainfall and heat waves. The plan includes extensive construction of permanent and smartly integrated “pop-up” barriers, as well as a proposal to extend the city’s footprint by 500 feet between the Brooklyn Bridge and the South Ferry Terminal. Lower Manhattan gets expanded According to the study, the buildings between the Brooklyn Bridge and South Ferry Terminal are too close to the coast and too densely concentrated with utility and subway lines for the integrated barriers planned for other neighborhoods. Space for additional infrastructure is highly limited. The proposed concept is to build out the land by approximately two blocks at a higher level, so as to act as a raised barrier (called a berm) that protects the Financial District from high tides. Related: Women are essential to climate resilience in the Caribbean — here’s why De Blasio’s plan to expand the city’s footprint into the East River is not unprecedented. In fact,  Gizmodo  reports that Ellis Island, Rikers Island, the FDR Drive, the World Financial Center and Battery Park City are all built on in-filled land. Before urbanization, Manhattan was a marshy island that served as a natural buffer, bearing the brunt of waves and protecting mainland – so it’s no wonder the city built on this land is vulnerable. New York City’s former mayor, Michael Bloomberg had also proposed a similar land addition during his term. Other adaptation measures New York City’s new climate change plan also includes $500 million for resilience projects to protect other lower Manhattan neighborhoods, including some affordable housing projects. These resiliency projects include flip-up walls and barriers that can be deployed if a storm is approaching. The discrete, low-impact designs maximize recreational space – such as parks, coastal walkways and fitness areas — but can be flipped-up to provide a fortified wall during emergencies. Other planned adaptation measures include: -a five-mile sea wall around Staten Island – sand dunes around the Rockaways -$165 million to elevate the esplanade in the Battery (construction to begin in 2021) -a combination of flood barriers and deployable walls in Battery Park City -$3.5 million for water and sand-filled temporary barriers in Two Bridges and Financial Districts (to be installed in preparation for the 2019 hurricane season) Mayor de Blasio argues that some of the funding for this expansive project should come from federal funds. In an op-ed in New York Magazine , de Blasio argued that protective measures to address climate change-related risks, such as the invasion of the sea , should be just as important as any federal military equipment. “It will be one of the most complex environmental and engineering challenges our city has ever undertaken and it will, literally, alter the shape of the island of Manhattan,” de Blasio wrote. “The new land will be higher than the current coast, protecting the neighborhoods from future storms and the higher tides that will threaten its survival in the decades to come.” New York City at risk The Lower Manhattan Climate Resilience Study was funded in part by city and state funding from post-Hurricane Sandy recovery dollars. The hurricane that pummeled the city in 2012 was a wake-up call for city officials and demonstrated the imminent threat of sea level rise and storm surge. Sandy caused $19 billion dollars of damage and claimed 43 lives. Electrek reported  that 72,000 buildings in New York City, worth a combined $129 billion, are within a predicted flood zone. By other estimates , 37 percent of lower Manhattan is at risk of storm surge by 2050, and by 2100 the level of the ocean is expected to be 18-50 inches higher than its current level. Related: Climate change is wreaking havoc on Italy’s olive harvests Equitable and environmental concerns Environmentalists are concerned that the build-out will have negative impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems and point out that the Mayor’s plan lacks an in-depth assessment of the environmental repercussions and cost-benefit analysis. Still others argue that the plan focuses on the big banks and big business areas of lower Manhattan but ignores other economically vulnerable areas throughout the five boroughs. Given the magnitude of the build out and the expected permitting processes, the additional land may not be a reality for at least five years, during which time environmental impact assessments could be carried out. Most city officials, however,  argue that with “$60 billion of property, 75 percent of the city’s subway lines, 90,000 residents and 500,000 jobs,” the proposed lower Manhattan area is a clear, though perhaps not equitable, priority for the city and ideally for the nation. + NYC Economic Development Corporation Images via Shutterstock

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NYC considers Manhattan land expansion to fight climate change

Researchers find weedkiller ingredient Glyphosate in name brand beer and wine

February 28, 2019 by  
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Researchers have discovered Glyphosate — an ingredient found in some weedkillers — in name brand wines and beers . Scientists from U.S. PIRG tested 20 different alcoholic brands and found the troubling ingredient in 19 of the labels. Currently, a federal judge is examining the correlation between glyphosate and cancer, as trial has begun against Monsanto, the company behind the popular weedkiller , Roundup, for allegedly causing the plantiff’s cancer. Related: New study finds harmful chemicals, including glyphosate, in disposable diapers The director of U.S. PIRG, Kara Cook-Schultz, believes this is the perfect time to look at glyphosate and warn people that it is more widely spread than most suspect. “This chemical could prove a true risk to so many Americans’ health, and they should know that it is everywhere – including in many of their favorite drinks,” Cook-Schultz explained. Sutter Home Merlot had the most glyphosate with 51.4 parts per billion (ppb). But many of the wines and beers on the list were well above 25 ppb, including Beringer Moscato, Barefoot Sauvignon, Miller Lite, Coors Light, Budweiser and Corona. The only drink that did not test positive for glyphosate was an organic IPA from Peak Beer. These numbers, while troubling, are below what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) considers the safety threshold. William Reeves, a toxicologist employed by Bayer, noted that the numbers are 100 times less than the recommended maximum exposure limit. For reference, a person would have to consume an entire bottle of Sutter Home Merlot wine every minute for their entire life just to reach the upper limits of what is considered safe. That said, even trace amounts of glyphosate could have negative health benefits. In the study from U.S. PIRG, the group found that tiny amounts of glyphosate, on the order of 1 part per trillion, could cause cancer cells to grow in breast tissue. The active ingredient also wreaks havoc on the endocrine system, though at what levels is still uncertain. It should be noted that the EPA does not consider glyphosate to be a cancer causing agent in humans, though the World Health Organization did label it as possibly carcinogenic four years ago. Via Eco Watch Image via Shutterstock

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Researchers find weedkiller ingredient Glyphosate in name brand beer and wine

Man-made climate change now at the level scientists call ‘five-stigma’

February 26, 2019 by  
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Scientists are warning that the proof for man-made climate change is now at a gold standard level. The announcement increases the call to limit greenhouse emissions to help prevent future rises in global temperatures. “Humanity cannot afford to ignore such clear signals,” a team of U.S. scientists noted in their findings. Scientists say the evidence that humans are responsible for contributing to global warming is overwhelming and is now at the level they term “five-stigma.” This means that there is about a one-in-a-million shot that people are not part of the problem. This standard is the same one scientists used to establish the existence of the Higgs boson particle in 2012. Related: Climate twins: which city will your city feel like in 2080? The lead scientist in the study, Benjamin Santer, hopes that the conclusions will make people realize that the scientific community understands what is causing global warming at a high degree of certainty. Santer, who conducted the research from California’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, says that narrative about the uncertainty of global warming needs to change. “The narrative out there that scientists don’t know the cause of climate change is wrong,” Santer explained. Experts agree that we are witnessing an increase in droughts, flooding, heat waves and higher ocean levels because of fossil fuel emissions. Despite the evidence, some politicians in the United States have tried to argue that global warming is not real and that being a part of the Paris climate initiative is a bad idea. Fortunately, more and more Americans are starting to believe that humans are the cause of climate change. In fact, a poll from last year found that 62 percent of residents in the U.S. believe climate change has a human element. This is a big jump from 2013, when only 47 percent of Americans believed it was true. Some scientists involved in the study, which used data gathered by satellites over the past decade, argue that the level of certainty about human involvement in climate change should be increased to closer to 99 or 100 percent. Via Reuters Images via Shutterstock

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Man-made climate change now at the level scientists call ‘five-stigma’

Iceland approves killing of more than 2,000 whales

February 26, 2019 by  
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Iceland has just approved the killing of 2,000 whales over the course of the next five years. The country’s government is allowing whaling companies to slaughter 217 minke and 209 fin whales per year until 2025, sparking outrage among environmental and conservation groups around the world. Officials in Iceland believe that killing these two groups of whales is sustainable and based on scientific studies. In fact, the minister of the fisheries department, Kristján Þór Júlíusson, says that minke and fin whales are overpopulated in Iceland’s oceans and hunting them will help reduce overpopulation. Related: Ghost gear is haunting our oceans “Whaling in Icelandic waters is only directed at abundant whale stocks, North Atlantic common minke whales and fin whales, it is science-based, sustainable, strictly managed and in accordance with international law,” a statement from the government read. Not everyone agrees with the ministry’s research. Conservationists say that their conclusion is based on faulty research and that killing whales does not offer any benefits to the country. The Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC), heavily criticized the new law, and claims that it does not have support from local residents— many of whom do not use whale products on a regular basis. Whale watching is a huge tourism draw for Iceland. The whale watching industry accounts for $13.4 million of the country’s economy. Hunting whales, meanwhile, brings in around $8 million. While Iceland employs more individuals in whale watching, hunting these ocean faring creatures pays more. Regardless of the justification, hunting whales was banned by the International Whaling Commission back in 1986. The law was put in place because whale populations were on the decline due to hunting. Despite these widely upheld laws, Iceland continues to kill whales on an annual basis — and minke and fin whales are not the only two species caught in the crosshairs. In 2018, a whaling crew out of Iceland called Hvalur hf killed a blue whale, an act in direct violation of international laws . The incident sparked outrage around the world and drew attention to the country’s whaling practices. Undeterred by worldwide condemnation, Iceland has not shown any signs of stopping the hunting of whales over the next five years. Via CNN Images via janeb13

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BREEAM Excellent-certified office of the future frames Bucharests restored Oromolu Villa

February 26, 2019 by  
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Bucharest-based architecture firm DSBA (Dorin Stefan Birou de Arhitectura) recently completed the Oromolu Office, a futuristic counterpart to its historic neighbor, the recently restored Oromolu Villa. Created as part of the Aviatorilor 8 complex in the heart of Bucharest , the three-story new-build was conceived as the “office of the future” with an eye-catching curvaceous glass curtain wall that helped the project achieve BREEAM Excellent certification. In addition to the triple-laminated facade, the building is equipped with a variety of cutting-edge sustainable technologies, from the implementation of an Advanced Building Management System to the availability of electric car chargers, bike racks and showers on all underground parking levels. The centerpiece and the inspiration behind the Aviatorilor 8 complex is the Oromolu House, a historic landmark built in 1927. The construction of the BREEAM -certified office building was completed alongside the restoration of the historic villa, which had previously suffered from neglect for years. The transformation of the site has restored the landmark building to its former glory. “Oromolu Office is a dialogue between old and new, between heritage and new technologies, a reflection on the glass of the history who yearns to be contemporary,” the architects explain in their project statement. “The innovation factor is defined by the 16m-long canopy and double-ventilated façade with triple-laminated double-curved glass that enhances the quality of the interior space and the flowing green jardinière controls the heat transfer and gives a graceful expression to the whole architectural approach.” Related: Contemporary cabin-like cafe pops up in the heart of Bucharest As a futuristic “smart” building, the Oromolu Office features not only the latest generation HVAC systems, but is also the first building in Romania to use the cutting-edge heating solution that embeds a PE-Xa pipework system in the slurry walls, which also help heat and cool the neighboring historic villa. The energy efficiency and sustainability of the office is further optimized with rainwater collection and recycling, sensor-controlled lights and blinds, low-flow fixtures and the use of recycled construction materials. + DSBA Images by Radu Malasincu and Vlad Patru

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BREEAM Excellent-certified office of the future frames Bucharests restored Oromolu Villa

New study predicts mass extinction in 140 years

February 25, 2019 by  
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A new study suggests that the old saying about history repeating itself is absolutely true. In this case, history repeating itself pertains to none other than the topic on everyone’s minds— extinction. Researchers believe it’s taken 56 million years for earth to face another mass extinction that can occur in as little as 140 years.  The research, released last Wednesday and published in Geophysical Research Letters , compares conditions in the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) period with our planet’s present warming condition. Back in PETM days, carbon dioxide shot up, increasing Earth’s temperatures by 9 to 14 degrees. The tropical Atlantic heated up to approximately 97 degrees. Land and marine animals died. It took 150,000 years for the planet to recover. Related: Global warming will melt over 1/3 of the Himalayan ice cap by 2100 Unfortunately for us, carbon dioxide emissions are rising ten times faster now than they did during the PETM. Back then, wildfires, volcanic activity and methane wafting from the seafloor and permafrost were the culprits. Today, it’s down to us. Last year, emissions in countries with advanced economies rose slightly after a five-year decline. At this rate, the study predicts Earth’s atmosphere will be comparable to the beginning of PETM in 140 years, reaching a peak in 259 years. The result? Mass extinction. Philip Gingerich, the study’s author, did a literature review of previous studies on PETM and the rate of carbon dioxide buildup in the atmosphere. Based on eight studies published between 2009 and 2018, he used models to project future emissions caused by humans. Gingerich is an emeritus professor in the University of Michigan’s earth sciences department. He directed the university’s Museum of Paleontology for nearly 30 years. “[It’s] as if we are deliberately and efficiently manufacturing carbon for emission to the atmosphere at a rate that will soon have consequences comparable to major events long ago in earth history,” Gingerich told Earther. As he states in his study, “A second PETM-scale global greenhouse warming event is on the horizon if we cannot lower anthropogenic carbon emission rates.” Via Earther Image via nikolabelopitv

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Art-inspired home sits as an ‘abstract sculpture’ in seaside town in Portugal

February 25, 2019 by  
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Located in the seaside town of Afife, Portugal, a beautiful, minimalist house was designed to pay homage to the traditional type of construction found in the region. Designed by Portuguese firm  Guilherme Machado Vaz , the geometric Afife House is a cube-like volume clad in bright white with golden-hued shutters that, when closed completely, transform the home into a modern “abstract sculpture” surrounded by greenery. Tucked into a green landscape that rolls out to the sea, the home’s design is quite modern. According to the architects, although the bright white facade of the geometric home is certainly eye-catching, the inspiration behind the design was to blend the structure into its tranquil surroundings. Related: A modern vacation retreat is embedded into the rolling hills of southern Portugal Using the local environment to inspire the design, the architects also took into consideration a beloved chapel that is separated from the home by a stone walkway. Not wanting to infringe on the religious site, the designers respectfully restrained the width of the building area to a mere 28 feet. “The chapel stands on a base of granite walls, and it imposes itself in that area. Its presence had an influence on the project, particularly as regards the design of the volume,” explained the Portuguese architects. “The house sought not to disturb the harmony of this religious space, but at the same time it did not want to be submissive to its presence.” The white volume is broken up by a series of square windows in various sizes and covered in flat shutters. The shutters on the south elevation are painted in a glossy gold color, a nod to religious triptych paintings. When open, the windows bring plenty of natural light indoors. The crisp color of the exterior continues throughout the interior living space. The unique layout was inspired by Austrian and Czech architect Adolf Loos’ Raumplan concept, which sees various multi-level spaces being connected by one long staircase that runs through the center of the home. This system helped take the design vertical to make up for its restricted width. The home also has plenty of exterior spaces, including a flat roof that pulls double duty as an open-air terrace. A circular swimming pool also sits in a square, all-white deck, again adding to the strong character of the design. + Guilherme Machado Vaz Via Dezeen Photography by José Campos via Guilherme Machado Vaz

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Art-inspired home sits as an ‘abstract sculpture’ in seaside town in Portugal

Get ready to use soapnuts for everything from cleaning to self care

February 25, 2019 by  
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Cleaning with soapnuts (AKA soap berries) might seem like a new, eco-friendly trend, but the practice has actually been around for centuries. People in Nepal and India as well as Native Americans have known about the amazing cleaning powers of soapnuts for hundreds of years. But if they are new to you, keep reading and be amazed at what this all-natural, sustainable cleaning product can do. What are soapnuts? Sapindus mukorossi — the Soapnut Tree — is native to India and the Himalayas, and it produces a small, black berry-like fruit that can be harvested between September and February. When the berries are deseeded, and the shells are dried, you can use them to clean anything and everything, but they are most often used as a laundry detergent. Soapnut shells contain saponin, a natural surfactant. When soapnuts get wet, they absorb water and release the saponins, which circulate in the wash water to remove dirt, oils and particles from clothing . In comparison, commercial laundry detergents mostly contain chemical surfactants, and some have been linked to cancer. Related: How to decode confusing labels on common household cleaners The tree itself has some amazing environmental benefits. It has a six-month harvest time each year and can be harvested for almost an entire century, which means one tree can produce a lot of soapnuts. The tree also helps in the fight against climate change , because it converts carbon dioxide into oxygen and cleans the air. But the berries are even more impressive. The shells are 100 percent biodegradable for easy composting, they are safe for septic systems, naturally hypoallergenic, gentle to sensitive skin and they don’t damage fabrics, skin or surfaces. Medicinal properties of soapnuts Ayurvedic medicine is a holistic  healing  system that has been  using soapnuts for thousands of years , for everything from solving skin problems to helping people to quit smoking. Soapnuts are used to treat eczema and psoriasis, and they have a natural anti-venom property that can remove poison from snake and scorpion bites. Some research has shown that soapnuts have anti-cancer properties that can  prevent tumor cell growth . Soapnuts have also been used by smokers to help reduce tobacco cravings, and they have also been known to  relieve migraines . A shampoo alternative You can ditch shampoo and wash your hair with soapnuts . They are a natural, inexpensive alternative that will leave your hair soft. They are also great for hair growth and preventing hair loss. The vitamins in soapnuts will make your hair shiny and smooth, and if you use them regularly, soapnuts can reduce split ends, tame frizz and detangle. Soapnuts can fight dandruff, because they are antifungal and antibacterial. They also have insecticidal properties that can kill lice. There is one word of caution when it comes to soapnuts: you want to make sure not to get them in your eyes. Because of those lice-killing properties, they can cause your eyelids to swell. Sustainable pet care Liquid soapnut solution isn’t just great for human hair; it can also be used to shampoo your pets . A soapnut detergent works well for washing pet beds and cleaning toys. Because  insects hate soapnuts , you can spray your pet with the solution to repel fleas and ticks. An eco-friendly laundry detergent Soapnuts are the perfect,  plant-based substitute  to conventional laundry detergents. All you have to do is place four or five soapnuts into a muslin bag and throw it in the wash. They will make your clothes fresh and clean, they don’t leave behind residue and they even remove stains. You can also reuse them several times, and then  compost  them when finished, making soapnuts a  zero-waste  laundry detergent. Natural skincare Soapnuts can prevent dry skin, because they are a natural moisturizer. Using them as a face cleanser can brighten your complexion and even out your skin tone. Using soapnuts as a body wash will cool and cleanse your skin without causing damage. This all-natural product can also help fight acne and soothe eczema. Skin rashes and  allergies  are no match for soapnuts, because they don’t dry out skin like many store-bought options. They are hypoallergenic and non-toxic, so you can use soapnuts on your baby’s skin — they may even work on diaper rash. A green all-purpose cleaner You can clean your entire house with soapnuts. Just a couple of mashed berries mixed with water will create a powerful, natural solution that can clean glass, cabinets, kitchen surfaces and dishes. They are odorless, so if you want a fragrance, simply add a few drops of essential oils. Soapnut liquid soap solution is also great for cleaning electronics , polishing jewelry or even washing your car. How to make a soapnut cleaning solution The basic recipe for soapnut cleaning solution is two to three berries for each cup of water. You mash the berries and add them to water before boiling for about half an hour, so they release the saponins. Once the water is cool, strain it through muslin cloth and add essential oils, if you prefer. You can store the solution in a jar or put it in a spray bottle. Images via Shutterstock

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Get ready to use soapnuts for everything from cleaning to self care

Climate twins: which city will your city feel like in 2080?

February 18, 2019 by  
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The phrase “global warming” gets tossed around a lot, but do we really understand what it means and how it will feel? In the groundbreaking Paris Agreement, 195 countries agreed to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius — but how will those 2 degrees really affect our lives? A new study in Nature links 540 U.S. cities to other cities with a current climate that is similar to how those cities will feel in 60 years. As CityLab’s Robinson Meyer explained , the study takes each city and finds “the city whose modern-day weather gives the best clue to what conditions will feel like in 2080.” The researchers’ goal is to translate what abstract climate science and meteorological changes really mean for people by making them understandable in a modern — and personal — context. For example, Philadelphia will feel more like Memphis in 2080. That equates to summer days that are warmer by an average of 7 degrees Fahrenheit, and winters that are warmer by 10 degrees. Memphis, on the other hand, will feel more like College Station, Texas.  Use this web tool to find your city’s ‘climate twin’. The ‘Arkansas-ification’ of U.S. cities “Every place is getting warmer and many are getting drier,” Matthew Fitzpatrick, author of the study, told CityLab. In fact, most cities’ future climate twin is approximately 500 miles farther south and toward the middle of the country. “In the Northeast, you can envision the future as one big Arkansasification,” Fitzpatrick explained. For those who haven’t been to Arkansas, the authors explained that means more humid, subtropical climates typical of the southeast and Midwest. Western cities, however, will start to feel more like the desert conditions of Southern California and the southwest. The cities selected in the study cover 250 million urban Americans. By using a method called climate analog mapping, the authors used different emission scenarios and weather predictions to find all similar cities, and then narrowed down the options to find the best match based on statistical and topographical similarities. The 540 cities selected were those that had the strongest match and the most relatable “twin.” A lot can happen in 60 years, and most are still hopeful that we can make changes to curb climate change. The authors used different examples of carbon emission rates, called Representative Concentration Pathways, to compare the results based on our best- and worst-case scenarios. For example, if progressive policies are put in place soon to curtail carbon emissions, Washington D.C. might feel like Paragould, Arkansas by 2080. If mitigation policies are not put into place, however, D.C. will become more like Greenwood, Mississippi — an additional 200 miles south. D.C. residents are already familiar with hot, humid summers in the low-lying capitol, so the news that their children will face even stickier summers is lamentably relatable. Though the matches aren’t perfect, the authors explained they do give modern-day examples that make abstract climate change realistic and easier to understand. Climate change puts cities at risk Cities are especially vulnerable to climate change, with rapidly increasing populations, urban sprawl, aging infrastructure and limited budgets for forward-thinking climate adaptation. In New York City , where heat island effect (the intensification of heat by concrete, urban environments) is already a major problem, the thought of becoming Jonesboro, Arkansas is daunting. Imagine a stifling hot, underground subway platform well above 85 degrees in July with no breeze. Now add an average of 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Related: Reimagine a resilient future for your city with this nature-based tool But human discomfort isn’t the only problem. These shifts in climate also affect other species. Migratory bird patterns are already changing but so are insect populations . Increased humidity, flooding and temperatures cause an uptick in mosquitoes, ticks and flies. This means an increase in diseases such as zika and dengue that were previously contained to fewer states. Winter freezes that used to kill off larva may no longer be cold enough to have the same population-controlling effect. Climate changes we can understand For most urban dwellers, this alarming news of hotter days and health consequences is not new. However, the authors of the study are hopeful that these results help people conceptualize climate change and make discussions more relatable. Their assessment is “place-based” and aims to use cities that are familiar. Many people have visited these cities, know about them or at the very least have an idea what the weather in their future “twin” city is like compared to where they live. Framing the discussion about climate impacts in a way that is understandable — and in some cases so real you can almost feel it — is critical. Hopefully, these terms and tools help people understand the urgency at a global scale in terms that are meaningful at a personal level. Via CityLab Image via Pixabay

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Climate twins: which city will your city feel like in 2080?

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