Scientists made the coldest liquid water ever – and it’s crazy weird

January 9, 2018 by  
Filed under Green

Water freezes at zero degrees Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit, right? While that’s water’s freezing point, under certain conditions liquid water can be supercooled – and still be liquid . Two groups of scientists recently uncovered new details about supercooled water, showing there could still be a lot we don’t know about this fairly common substance. Water just got weirder. We know supercooled water drops can exist naturally in the planet’s atmosphere , at temperatures as low as negative 35 degrees Celsius, according to Gizmodo . It isn’t easy for scientists to measure the temperature of supercooled water droplets, but a team led by Goethe University Frankfurt pioneered a new technique – for drops as small as a micrometer – that shows liquid water can exist at negative 42.55 degrees Celsius. Their research was published in Physical Review Letters earlier this month, with scientists at institutions in Germany, Italy, France, and Spain contributing. Related: Scientists discover water has not one, but two liquid phases Meanwhile, Stockholm University published other groundbreaking research on supercooled water last month in Science – and here’s where things get really weird. The scientists found that at normal pressure and a temperature of negative 44 degrees Celsius, water “can exist as two distinct liquids with different ways to bind the water molecules. The water can not decide what shape to be in without fluctuating between these two,” per the university’s press release . They explained it’s similar to how we may be unable to make up our minds on a decision and go back and forth over different options. They discovered many of water’s weird properties “reach a maximum at negative 44 degrees Celsius.” Supercooled water may be a cool topic, but why should you care? Physics said in their synopsis of the Goethe University Frankfurt research, “Knowing when water freezes and when it stays liquid at these low temperatures could improve understanding of atmospheric ice formation and help researchers develop more reliable climate models.” Via Stockholm University , Physics , and Gizmodo Images via chuttersnap on Unsplash and Stockholm University

See the original post: 
Scientists made the coldest liquid water ever – and it’s crazy weird

Giant curtain built in Peru to study climate change in the cloud forests

January 5, 2018 by  
Filed under Eco, Green

Comments Off on Giant curtain built in Peru to study climate change in the cloud forests

Biologist Dan Metcalfe is leading a study that seeks to understand how climate change may impact the cloud forests of Peru and elsewhere by using a giant curtain to affect the local environment. A professor at Lund University in Sweden, Metcalfe describes his unprecedented plan as “an experimental approach where we actually physically try to remove clouds from a portion of the forest.” Cloud forests are unique ecosystems, which, although small in land area, provide enormous regional ecological benefits. Despite their importance, there has been little research on how climate change may impact cloud forests. Metcalfe’s study will test how the forest reacts to reduced cloud and moisture cover in hopes of understanding what is in store for these precious habitats. At only 1 percent of the world’s total forested area, cloud forests are well adapted to mountainside locations near the equator between 500-4,000 meters (1640-13,000 feet) in elevation. Cloud forests function as moisture banks for rivers and lowland habitats, storing water in its spongy soil and releasing it when needed down below during a dry spell. Many species of plants and animals are endemic to cloud forests and may face threats to their habitat due to climate change. Scientists suspect that clouds will form further uphill, leaving the forest to deal with decreased levels of moisture. Metcalfe’s experiment intends to observe what effects this change might have on the forests and those who call it home. Related: Fly through Ecuador’s cloud forest on a human-powered sky bike! After earlier curtain designs proved impractical, Metcalfe salvaged a damaged tower not longer suitable for climbing to rig up a ten-story tall curtain. Even after reaching a final plan, Metcalfe’s project continued to endure delays and obstacles. A key team member became sick, essential gear was destroyed by fire , and Metcalfe’s wife gave birth to two children, limiting travel to Peru. After four years of work, the curtain is almost finished and extensive data on the cloud forest and climate change will soon be arriving. Via the Guardian Images via William Ferguson/Wake Forest University ,  Dan Metcalfe/Lund University , and  Caroline Granycome/Flickr

More here: 
Giant curtain built in Peru to study climate change in the cloud forests

2017: the year climate change spiraled out of control

January 4, 2018 by  
Filed under Eco, Green

Comments Off on 2017: the year climate change spiraled out of control

With its extreme weather and unraveling public policy, 2017 provided the world with a glimpse of its climate-chaotic future if changes are not made immediately. Ferocious wildfires burned across California, back-to-back major hurricanes devastated coastal and even inland areas, and the Arctic continued to melt. All the while, Washington DC took action to halt the marginal but meaningful progress made under the Obama Administration by withdrawing from the Paris agreement and stacking the Environmental Protection Agency with those who would serve the interests of industry first. In what is yet another warning sign in a long line of alarm bells ringing, 2017 served as a reminder that the disruptive power of climate change is real and that our failure to act will cost us dearly, today and tomorrow. Although global emissions had remained flat for three years prior, 2017 marked a return to form, with greenhouse gas emissions rising by two percent. While the United States , despite its change in leadership, maintained a slight decline in emissions, this was more than offset by increases in China and India. This continued rise means that in order to meet the emissions goals to avoid catastrophic climate change, substantial cuts will need to be made quickly over the next few decades. Meanwhile, the worst-case climate-change scenarios predicted by scientists seem to be increasingly likely, according to a recent study published in the journal Nature . Related: Climate change is squishing the Earth and making oceans heavier If the numbers aren’t convincing, the visceral experience of 2017 should make clear the dangers of climate change. Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria devastated the United States and the Caribbean, leaving much of Puerto Rico still without power and over $200 billion in damages during what was the costliest hurricane season in history. On the other side of North America, wildfires raged in what was also the costliest wildfire season on record. While climate change doesn’t cause wildfires or hurricanes, it creates the conditions that facilitate extreme weather. Meanwhile, the Arctic continues to melt as scientists declare that the region is no longer reliably frozen due to a downward spiral of warming temperatures. The world is not doomed to this climate catastrophe. However, time is rapidly running out. Via MIT Technology Review Images via Depositphotos (1)

View original post here: 
2017: the year climate change spiraled out of control

Super blue blood moon eclipse to occur for the first time in 150 years

January 4, 2018 by  
Filed under Eco, Green

Comments Off on Super blue blood moon eclipse to occur for the first time in 150 years

On January 31, turn your eyes to the sky, because the moon is going to do something that it hasn’t done in a century and a half. On the last day of the month, lucky celestial viewers are going to witness a super blue blood moon eclipse. So what is a super blue blood moon eclipse? Let’s break it down. The supermoon is when the full moon is closest to the Earth, so it looks extremely bright and big. A blue moon is when the moon is full for a second time in a calendar month. Then, while all that is happening, there is going to be a total lunar eclipse . And as if that wasn’t enough, it’s also going to be a blood moon at the same time – something that occurs when blue light filters out of the atmosphere during an eclipse, making the moon appear red. Related: Missed the Blood Moon? Watch the Event Unfold Through NASA’s Stunning Footage In the U.S., the eclipse itself won’t be very visible except in Hawaii and Alaska. But viewers in New Zealand, Australia, parts of Asia, and Indonesia are in for a real treat. And in case you were wondering, the answer is no. The super blue blood moon eclipse doesn’t mean anything special, except that it is an exciting convergence of multiple interesting lunar phenomena. Via Phys.org Images via Deposit Photos ( 1 , 2 )

See the original post here:
Super blue blood moon eclipse to occur for the first time in 150 years

Climate change is squishing the Earth and making oceans heavier

January 3, 2018 by  
Filed under Green

Comments Off on Climate change is squishing the Earth and making oceans heavier

The ocean floor may be sinking under the weight of heavier oceans as a result of climate-change -induced glacier melting and sea level rise, according to a new study. Scientists at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands discovered that the deforming impact of a heavier ocean on the seafloor is too large to be accurately measured using traditional satellite altimeters. This means that measurements of sea level rise based on the assumption of a static seafloor may be inaccurate. Researchers suspected that traditional sea level measurement methods might be off. “We have had tide gauge sea level rise measurements for more than a century,” Delft University of Technology geoscientist and study Thomas Frederikse told Earther . “You put an instrument at the sea bottom and see how far sea level changes relative to the bottom. Satellites orbiting the Earth measure sea level from space . We wanted to see how large is the difference.” After modeling and analysis of new data, the team determined that, as a result of sea level rise and climate change, the ocean floor had been sinking on average by about 0.1 mm/year between 1993-2014, or 2.1 mm in total. This relatively small change can have a big impact on the accuracy, or inaccuracy, of sea level measurements if not taken into account. Related: Scientists find the Earth’s constant hum is coming from the ocean floor In their study recently published in Geophysical Research Letters , researchers determined that traditional satellite measurements are underestimating sea level rise by about four percent. Now that this disparity is known, corrections can be made. “The effect is systematic and relatively easy to account for,” wrote Frederikse and his co-authors. Over the course of the study, the researchers uncovered some unexpected impacts of heavier oceans, including a slight ocean floor rise in areas most impacted by sea ice and glaciers, such as Greenland and the Arctic. The small but significant change in our measurements of sea level is a reminder of all that we still do know about climate change and its impacts on every part of this planet. “ The Earth itself is not a rigid sphere, it’s a deforming ball,” said Frederikse, according to Earther . “With climate change, we do not only change temperature.” Via Earther Images via NASA and Frederikse, et. al.

See original here: 
Climate change is squishing the Earth and making oceans heavier

NASA scientists identify unknown microbes aboard International Space Station

January 2, 2018 by  
Filed under Eco, Green

Comments Off on NASA scientists identify unknown microbes aboard International Space Station

Hurricane Harvey couldn’t stand in the way of a groundbreaking experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) this summer. NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson and the Genes in Space-3 team have identified unknown microbes in space . Their work could help future astronauts monitor crew health and diagnose ailments in real time – without needing to send a sample back to Earth. Astronaut Kate Rubins sequenced DNA for the first time in microgravity in 2016 , which NASA described as a game changer. But scientists knew what the samples contained, as they’d been prepared on Earth. This past summer, the Genes in Space-3 team conducted an experiment with samples collected in space to see if they could sequence unknown organisms. Whitson was in the process of performing the investigation when Hurricane Harvey hit – and the Earth-based principal investigator Sarah Wallace was in Houston. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama came to the rescue, enabling the two women to communicate by patching Wallace’s cell phone into the space to ground loops. With a hurricane whirling outside, the experiment continued. Related: The International Space Station is a germophobe’s nightmare “Right away, we saw one microorganism pop up, and then a second one, and they were things that we find all the time on the space station,” Wallace said in a statement. The samples were sent to Earth, so biochemical and sequencing tests could confirm the ISS findings, which they did: the results were the same on our planet as in orbit. “As a microbiologist, my goal is really so that when we go and we move beyond ISS and we’re headed towards Mars or the moon or wherever we are headed to, we have a process that the crew can have that great understanding of the environment based on molecular technology,” said Wallace in a NASA Johnson video . She was the lead author on a study published in Scientific Reports in December. A team of 21 scientists from NASA and institutions in the United States and United Kingdom collaborated on the article. Via NASA Images via NASA Johnson on YouTube , NASA , and Rachel Barry

The rest is here:
NASA scientists identify unknown microbes aboard International Space Station

Substantial swaths of globe face desertification without climate action – new study

January 2, 2018 by  
Filed under Eco, Green

Comments Off on Substantial swaths of globe face desertification without climate action – new study

Limiting global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels could reduce desertification of substantial swaths of Earth, according to a new study published in Nature Climate Change . The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016 is theoretically designed to ensure temperatures reach “well below 2 degrees Celsius” — but the United States, a leading contributor to climate change , rescinded its participation last June under President Donald Trump. “Our research predicts that aridification would emerge over about 20-30 percent of the world’s land surface by the time the global mean temperature change reaches 2ºC,” Manoj Joshi, lead researcher from the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom, told The Washington Examiner . “But two-thirds of the affected regions could avoid significant aridification if warming is limited to 1.5ºC.” More than 20 percent of the world’s population would be affected by extreme drought without action, according to the report; Central America, Southeast Asia, Southern Europe, Southern Africa and Southern Australia would be hardest hit. The UN’s Green Climate Fund was established to ensure developed countries that spew the most greenhouse gases into the atmosphere contribute funds to help less developed countries, which are likely to suffer the most, adapt to and mitigate the effects of a warming world. Related: Stephen Hawking says Trump decision to leave Paris accord could induce irreversible climate change Before the Trump administration announced the US would stop making contributions to the fund, the country had committed to a contribution of less than $10 per person, according to the New York Times . Considering how much the US contributes to climate change, that sum pales in comparison to Sweden’s $59 per capita. But for Donald Trump, $10 per person was too steep a price to pay to slow down what leading scientists like Stephen Hawking warn is one of the gravest dangers humanity has ever faced. Here’s Trump in a recent tweet showing a cringeworthy lack of understanding of climate science: In the East, it could be the COLDEST New Year’s Eve on record. Perhaps we could use a little bit of that good old Global Warming that our Country, but not other countries, was going to pay TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS to protect against. Bundle up!— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) December 29, 2017 Beyond being just plain wrong, Trump’s scientific illiteracy is dangerous; not only does he promote industries that send even more heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere, he encourages his base to adopt the kind of wrong-thinking that could derail the kind of climate action that could have life-saving results. “The world has already warmed by 1ºC. But by reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere in order to keep global warming under 1.5ºC or 2ºC could reduce the likelihood of significant aridification emerging in many parts of the world,” said Su-Jong Jeong from China’s Southern University of Science and Technology, and a participant in the study. Drought is nothing to scoff at. It could lead to water and food scarcity, disease and war, among countless other consequences. It behooves all of us to arrest its deadly advance. + Nature Climate Change Images via DepositPhotos – Kalahari Desert , Desert Dune

Originally posted here: 
Substantial swaths of globe face desertification without climate action – new study

Universal DNA vaccine could make yearly flu shot a thing of the past

December 29, 2017 by  
Filed under Green

Comments Off on Universal DNA vaccine could make yearly flu shot a thing of the past

There were 7,000 confirmed cases of the flu in the United States by the end of November – double the amount from the same time the prior year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. University of Washington School of Medicine researchers are hoping to one day offer an alternative to the annual flu shot: a DNA vaccine . The vaccine could offer long-lasting protection from all flu virus strains – even as viruses genetically change. A DNA vaccine could instruct a person’s skin cells to generate antigens and induce antibodies and T cell responses to fight the flu, according to UW Medicine . A gene gun device could inject the vaccine right into skin cells. With the universal vaccine, people might not have to get a flu shot every year. Related: Experimental Zika vaccine to be tested on humans for the first time The DNA vaccine is able to get around genetic changes in flu strains by “using genetic components of influenza virus – the conserved areas – which do not change,” according to UW Medicine. The DNA vaccine doesn’t just repel a virus but finds infected cells and kills them. The research team tested the vaccine on primates , and found T cell responses were so fast the primates just did not get sick. Department of Microbiology professor Deborah Fuller, in whose laboratory this research took place, said in a statement, “With the immunized groups, we found that using this conserved component of the virus gave them 100 percent protection against a previous circulating influenza virus that didn’t match the vaccine.” This universal vaccine could be ready for rapid deployment in case of a deadly pandemic flu strain, and has a production time of around three months as opposed to the nine months required for the United States-approved vaccine for flu season. The DNA-based approach could also offer a mechanism for vaccines for other viruses like Zika . The vaccine could still be five to 10 years away – UW Medicine said that’s about as long as it takes from promising laboratory results to commercial viability. The journal PLOS One published the research this month. 17 researchers from institutions around the United States contributed to the paper. Via University of Washington School of Medicine Images via Depositphotos ( 1 , 2 )

View original here: 
Universal DNA vaccine could make yearly flu shot a thing of the past

Hot electron research could open up greater efficiencies for solar energy

December 26, 2017 by  
Filed under Green

Comments Off on Hot electron research could open up greater efficiencies for solar energy

Hot electron research is heating up solar and renewable energy research, according to the Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory . Nanoscientists there uncovered quicker ways to convert power from light to energetic or hot electrons – and their methods could allow for higher efficiencies for solar power. Argonne researchers and collaborators created hybrid nanomaterials – smaller than the width of human hair – “to harness the full energy of photons,” according to the laboratory . The result was what are called hot electrons that “carry the same amount of energy as a photon that strikes nanomaterial components” and could lead to large advances in photovoltaics and photocatalytic water splitting — where materials turn solar energy into hydrogen fuel . Related: SunPower’s new solar shingles are 15% more efficient than conventional photovoltaics Senior scientist and study co-author Gary Wiederrecht said in their statement, “In larger particles, you see very few of these energetic electrons with energies near the photon energy. So you need a smaller particle.” The team zeroed in on metals because they absorb a lot of light, key to increasing the amount of energetic electrons in a material that’s been lit up. They simulated the material to determine what conditions would create the biggest number of hot electrons, and settled on silver nanocubes and gold films divided by aluminum oxide spacers. The nanostructure can crank out hot electrons better than others, according to Argonne. Wiederrecht said, “One of the key advances is our ability to produce energetic electrons over a very broad spectral range – from the ultraviolet through the visible and into the near infrared.” The journal Nature Communications published the research online in October. Scientists from Duke University, the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, and Ohio University contributed. Via Argonne National Laboratory Images courtesy of Matthew Sykes, Argonne National Laboratory, Shutterstock/Triff and Shutterstock/siro46 and via Depositphotos

The rest is here: 
Hot electron research could open up greater efficiencies for solar energy

Delightful climbing ‘trees’ let budding adventurers safely play to their heart’s content

December 26, 2017 by  
Filed under Green

Comments Off on Delightful climbing ‘trees’ let budding adventurers safely play to their heart’s content

Keeping children occupied and active is no easy feat, but a new company called  Luckey Climbers  is creating some seriously cool structures  for budding adventurers. The innovative three-dimensional vertical mazes come in all shapes and sizes and have large colorful platforms that are easy to climb on. The structures are surrounded by nets to let kids scramble as high as they want – without giving parents a heart attack. The New York-based company has installed bespoke climbing structures all over the world, from Florida to Hong Kong. The climbers are made out of bent plywood with plastic platforms, stainless steel pipes, and thousands of feet of colorful coated cable. Each structure is a unique design, created for children, but also meant to be a public landmark for communities. Related: Historic Amsterdam park gets new life with a funky climbing “blob” Designed to encourage physical activity and imaginative play for kids of all ages, the climbers are also created to foster physical and intellectual development in children. According to the company, the fun structures “have dramatically positive effects on child development such as problem-solving, spatial thinking, balance, social interaction, and cooperation.” + Luckey Climbers Images via Luckey Climbers

Here is the original post:
Delightful climbing ‘trees’ let budding adventurers safely play to their heart’s content

« Previous PageNext Page »

Bad Behavior has blocked 961 access attempts in the last 7 days.