Domed, desert eco-dwellings are built of organic papier-mch

July 15, 2020 by  
Filed under Eco, Green, Recycle

Comments Off on Domed, desert eco-dwellings are built of organic papier-mch

Illinois-based design studio i/thee has teamed up with Los Angeles firm Roundhouse to create Agg Hab — short for Aggregate Habitat — an experimental eco-dwelling built from papier-mâché. The project, which the designers say is possibly the world’s largest self-supporting papier-mâché structure, functions as a prototype for a semi-subterranean house integrated into the desert of Clarendon, Texas. Made with nearly 200 liters of glue and 270 pounds of paper, Agg Hab measures over 20 feet in length and 8 feet wide and stands at a height of 4.5 feet. <img src="//inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/07/Agg-Hab-I-thee-3-889×593.jpg" alt="irregular paper domes in the desert" class="wp-image-2274847" Developed as part of an exercise to push the possibilities of construction with as few resources as possible, Agg Hab follows a simple design and construction process that began with the excavation of two “mirrored convexo-concave” holes, each 4.5 feet deep. The designers then cast each hole with multiple layers of organic papier-mâché mixture — comprising recycled paper and non-toxic glue — to create dome-shaped shells spanning over 20 feet in length. The 4-millimeter-thick shells were flipped over and set atop the holes to create the roof of the semi-subterranean dwelling.  Related: Spectacular rammed-earth dome home is tucked deep into a Costa Rican jungle <img src="//inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/07/Agg-Hab-I-thee-6-889×667.jpg" alt="rammed-earth and paper dome interior with large opening" class="wp-image-2274850" <img src="//inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/07/Agg-Hab-I-thee-8-889×666.jpg" alt="round skylight bringing light into a paper dome home" class="wp-image-2274852" “Together, the holes, matched with their respective shells, create a semi-subterranean house in which the negative and positive expressions of a series of excavated forms take on a reciprocal relationship to create multiple habitable spaces,” the designers explained. “The result of this process is a formal and phenomenal experience derived from the earth itself. There are no perfect lines or manufactured shapes or colors in the design. Instead, the formal language of the habitat follows cues from those found in nature: the contours of the domes perfectly matching those of the excavated dirt; the surface of the paper stained with a plethora of natural, earthen tones.” <img src="//inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/07/Agg-Hab-I-thee-9-889×667.jpg" alt="people resting against earth and paper walls of a dome home" class="wp-image-2274853" <img src="//inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/07/Agg-Hab-I-thee-10-889×667.jpg" alt="people looking into skylight of a dome home" class="wp-image-2274854" Large circular openings have been cut into parts of the papier-mâché shells to let in light and views of the desert. The Agg Hab eco-dwelling serves as a prototype for a larger project the designers are working on.  + i/thee Photography by Neal Lucas Hitch via i/thee <img src="//inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2020/07/Agg-Hab-I-thee-4-889×592.jpg" alt="aerial view of two elongated, irregular paper domes in the desert" class="wp-image-2274848"

Read more here:
Domed, desert eco-dwellings are built of organic papier-mch

New solar farm in Indiana boosts local pollinators

July 15, 2020 by  
Filed under Business, Green

Comments Off on New solar farm in Indiana boosts local pollinators

Goodbye, dirty old coal-fired power plant. Hello, sunshine,  bees  and butterflies. That’s what the folks of Logansport, Indiana are saying as they trade their last coal power plant for a new 80-acre, 16-megawatt solar farm complete with a pollinator habitat. Inovateus Solar, headquartered in South Bend, is developing the solar installation for Logansport Municipal Utility (LMU). The project will take place on former  farmland  near the city’s light industrial area. LMU aims to reduce its carbon emissions and help stabilize customer costs. The solar farm will generate enough power for about 3,700 homes. Related: Celebrate National Pollinator Week from June 22-28 Power purchase agreement The old  coal -fired power plant toiled for over 120 years before recently shutting down. In its wake, Alchemy Renewable Energy financed a 30-year power purchase agreement with LMU. Alchemy is a portfolio company of Monarch Private Capital. Founded in 2016, Alchemy’s projects include building solar installations in North Carolina, Florida and Texas. A solar power purchase agreement (PPA) is a financial arrangement where the developer is responsible for designing, permitting, financing and installing a solar energy system on a customer’s property. The customer pays little or nothing for the setup but agrees to pay a fixed rate to the developer for the power generated. The developer gets the income from  electricity  sales as well as tax credits and incentives earned by the renewable energy system. After the term of the agreement — typically 10 to 25 years — the customer can buy the solar installation, extend the PPA or get the developer to remove the system. The contract between LMU and Alchemy Renewable Energy allows LMU to purchase the  solar  power at a fixed kilowatt-hour rate with no upfront capital costs. LMU has the option to eventually buy the solar energy system. “Inovateus is excited to be working with Alchemy to develop LMU’s first solar energy installation for the citizens and businesses of Logansport,” Jordan Richardson, Inovateus Solar’s business development manager, said in a press release. “We want to thank the City of Logansport, LMU, the Logansport Utility Service Board, Alchemy, Cass County, and all the residents who helped us to design a solar system that will create local  jobs  and enhance the city’s natural habitats.” Bees and butterflies The plan is to complete the solar installation construction in early 2021, then plant a  pollinator  seed mix underneath the solar panels. This mix will attract bees and butterflies more than traditional groundcover, which will be beneficial for these species and local farmers. Inovateus will partner with Fresh Energy and the Bee & Butterfly Habitat Fund for this phase of the project. Combining beneficial insects and solar is part of a growing trend. “Pollinator-friendly solar is rapidly emerging as a best practice for all solar farms build on arable soils or prime farmland,” Rob Davis, director of the Center for Pollinators in Energy at Fresh Energy, told Inhabitat. “Within the last year, Clif Bar, Aveda, Dr. Bronners, Organic Valley, Perdue Farms, Penn State, University of Pittsburgh, Denison University, University of Dayton, and many more have announced or build and  seeded  pollinator-friendly solar project.” According to Davis, the 80-acre project site will plant more than 40 species of pollinator-friendly plants, including sky blue aster, purple coneflower, crimson clover, goldenrod and lemon bee balm. The project will benefit local  butterflies , bees and farmers, too. “We have about 430 species of bees, 140 species of butterflies, thousands of moth species…and many species of flower-visiting flies, wasps, ants, and beetles,” said Dr. Brock Harpur, an entomologist at Purdue University. “These new landscapes can provide nesting sites and food sources for pollinators that need it most.” Attracting more pollinators will also benefit certain  crops , Davis said. “Having a diverse assemblage of pollinators (not just one or a few species) can dramatically improve crop yield. By providing food and habitat for pollinators, we can, potentially, boost the number of pollinators in an area and help surrounding farms be pollinated more efficiently.”  Plants  will also benefit the solar panels by creating a cooler micro-climate. Deep-rooted plants can boost resilience to both drought and heavy rains. Celebrating solar After continuously operating coal-fired smokestack power plants for 122 years, Logansport closed its last one in 2016. The  city  looks forward to a solar future. In fact, people are so excited about it that Mayor Chris Martin signed an official proclamation naming June 26 as Bird & Pollinator-Friendly Solar Day. Fittingly, this date falls within National Pollinator Week. “We are proud to work with Inovateus Solar to bring the first ever solar energy project to Logansport,” said Martin. “How exciting to be a part of pioneering this clean, alternative energy source right here in our community that will help curb LMU energy costs for our consumers. The creation of a bee and butterfly  habitat  will also be a great environmentally friendly addition to the city’s west side!” + Rob Davis and Dr. Brock Harpur Images via Schuler Publicity

See the rest here:
New solar farm in Indiana boosts local pollinators

The many ways fungi are saving our planet

April 10, 2020 by  
Filed under Eco, Green

Comments Off on The many ways fungi are saving our planet

Fungi are living organisms that support the ecosystem of the entire planet. Most people associate mushrooms with fungi, but in reality, mushrooms merely make up the ‘flower’ portion of some species of fungi. Up to 90% of the fungi associated with the mushroom is underground as part of a web called mycelium . Scientists are continually discovering ways fungi enhance the circle of life. The mushroom and mycelium components of fungi are currently a hot topic in the research world, because there are already over 100,000 identified varieties with thousands more being discovered annually. Together, these fungi species are unlocking solutions for cleaning up the environment, developing greener construction and product materials and contributing significant medicinal benefits. What are fungi? Fungi are basically the digestive tract of the planet. As a carbon-based substance, fungi work in conjunction with all living or decaying things. Whether that is a tree that has fallen in the woods or an animal that dies along the side of the road, mycelium works below-ground to facilitate decomposition. Mycelium is a massive filter that removes toxins from the soil , improving water quality as a result. Related: How fungi made Earth’s atmosphere livable This network also cycles nutrients from one location to another, essentially transporting food and water from one plant to another. It’s also believed they send messages throughout the forest that support the success of other fungi as well as overall plant life. In scientific papers reviewed as recently as two months ago, evidence has come to light indicating fungal fossils may date back at least 715 to 810 million years and possibly even over one billion years ago. Whether that can be proven or not, most scientists accept that fungi have survived on the planet since at least 400 million years ago. Further, researchers give credit to fungi for their critical role in facilitating the continued existence of the planet. Fungi and climate change In addition to supporting the entire plant kingdom, fungi are recognized as a promising weapon in the fight against climate change . While some of these discoveries happen in a lab, others are happening in nature as we go about our daily lives. As outlined in a new documentary, Fantastic Fungi , fungi are indiscriminate in their consumption of organic material. As an example of this cycle, fungi can break down carbon-based diesel oil, growing mushrooms in its wake. Then birds, bees and bugs feed, spread seeds and pollinate as a result, supporting more than just the surrounding area. In fact, many scientists believe mushrooms might be one solution to ending the crisis bees are facing, because mushrooms’ antiviral characteristics may offer protection from damaging chemicals in other plants. Fungi can likely clean up other aspects of the environment, too. According to the State of the World’s Fungi 2018 report , the mushroom Aspergillus tubingensis has the ability to grow directly on the surface of plastic and has properties that actually deteriorate the material. Yes, apparently some mushrooms can eat plastic . Even more amazing is the discovery that fungi were found consuming radiation off the walls of the abandoned Chernobyl plant. In fact, three species were found to be absorbing the radiation and turning it into energy for growth. In essence, they were feeding off radiation. Mushroom waste becomes biofuel Natural waste from mushroom production can also be converted into biofuel . According to research published in Science Advances , the research team revealed that a naturally occurring bacterium called Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum (TG57), isolated from waste generated after harvesting mushrooms, is capable of directly converting cellulose (a plant-based material) to biobutanol, leading to a much cleaner way to produce biofuel and reduce emissions from fossil fuels. Products made from fungi Product manufacturers are also looking toward fungi in material development due to properties that allow them to naturally decompose at the end of their life cycle. Fungi are being used as a substitute for environmental nemesis polystyrene foam , animal leather and chemical-laden building materials. One company, Coeio, has even created a mushroom-infused burial suit, explaining that a human body will break down faster and give back to the Earth sooner while the fungal properties filter out any toxic chemicals the body has acquired while living. Fungi for health Fungi are also in the spotlight for exciting medical advancements, such as treating anxiety and depression with psilocybin . Fungi could also help fight against cognitive decline, according to a recent study . Plus, fungi are already part of our everyday life in ways you may not even recognize. In addition to the mushrooms on your pizza , fungi are important for fermentation, which creates alcohol, leavened bread and much more. The list of possible ways fungi are saving our planet is nearly as long as the list of species themselves. With an increasing interest in research, the possibilities for finding innovative ways to use fungi in the future are exciting and promising. Images via Pixabay

See the rest here: 
The many ways fungi are saving our planet

LEED Gold-targeted Ottawa library will honor local history

February 13, 2020 by  
Filed under Green

Comments Off on LEED Gold-targeted Ottawa library will honor local history

After nearly a year of public input by Canadians from coast to coast, Toronto-based Diamond Schmitt Architects has finally revealed renderings for the new Ottawa library and archives. Designed in collaboration with KWC Architects , the Ottawa Public Library and Library and Archives Canada Joint Facility will be an innovative landmark representative of all Canadians. The building will target, at minimum, LEED Gold certification and will reflect the region’s rich history and natural beauty with its organic and dynamic design oriented for unparalleled views of the Ottawa River and Gatineau Hills in Quebec. The recently unveiled designs for the Ottawa library are the result of an unprecedented public co-design process called the “Inspire555 Series” after the building’s address at 555 Albert Street, on the western edge of downtown Ottawa . The process, which began in February last year, asked residents, indigenous communities and Canadians from across the country to participate in a series of design workshops, pop-up events, expert lectures and online activities to shape the design and direction of the public institution. More than 4,000 people contributed to the library’s major design themes, which include accessibility, a sense of welcoming for diverse groups and needs, site-specific elements and a connection to nature.  Related: Henning Larsen’s energy-efficient Kiruna Town Hall opens to the public As a result, the final design takes cues from Ottawa’s environment with an undulating form that references the nearby Ottawa River. The stone and wood exterior grounds the building into the nearby escarpment landscape, while the top floors, rooftop and abundance of glazing frame views of the Ottawa River and Gatineau Hills. The five-story building will be organized around a large town hall at its heart and will include exhibition and collections spaces, reading rooms, a creative center, a children’s area, a genealogy center and a cafe. “The location at a cultural crossroads of a route that traces the three founding peoples — French, English and Indigenous — underscores the spirit of confluence in the building’s design and the possibilities for these memory institutions in a modern facility to advance the Canadian story,” said Donald Schmitt, principal of Diamond Schmitt Architects. The joint facility has a CA $193 million ($145 million) budget and is scheduled to open in 2024. + Diamond Schmitt Architects Images via Diamond Schmitt Architects

Here is the original: 
LEED Gold-targeted Ottawa library will honor local history

Get cozy this season with these 7 hot vegan drinks for winter

January 8, 2019 by  
Filed under Green

Comments Off on Get cozy this season with these 7 hot vegan drinks for winter

Thoughts of snowy winter days bring to mind a toasty fire, slippers, sweaters, blankets and warm drinks. It makes sense, because they all equate to the perfect combination of coziness. While traditional tea or coffee is a lovely choice, it’s fun to explore new flavors. For those that are vegan by choice or by circumstance, traditional drinks can be limiting. We’ve conjured up a varied blend of hot drink options to fit your vegan lifestyle. Note that most of these options can also be adapted for the over-21 crowd. Cider Apple cider quickly comes to mind in any discussion of hot drinks, and it is undisputed as a sweet, delicious option. But cider encompasses a host of other possibilities as well. Because fruits and herbs are naturally vegan, there are endless combinations to suit your preferences. How about some apple-berry cider? Cranberry makes a colorful, flavorful and delightful cider that you can drink as-is or use as a base for any number of warm drinks. Take advantage of mint, basil and lavender for tasty spins on the classic ciders, too. Related: 12 delicious and crowd-pleasing vegan brunch ideas Coffee Another age-old vegan option is coffee . However, contemporary methods have turned this once black-only option into dairy-filled whipped, stirred and frothy concoctions. The advantage of modern inventions is that they’ve also come up with an assortment of creamy options that don’t come from an animal source. Replace the cow’s milk and heavy cream with rice milk, almond milk, coconut milk or the sturdy oat milk. From there, you can embellish with a dash of almond or peppermint extract and top with vegan whipped cream and chocolate shavings. There’s no reason to miss out on the seasonal peppermint mocha or cinnamon-spice latte you see everywhere when you can recreate it at home. Hot cocoa Cocoa is a childhood favorite with its sweet flavor and creamy texture. It became a classic for a reason — it’s delicious! But even the classics are due for an upgrade at some point, so take cues from the coffee suggestions above with the addition of extracts, vegan chocolate , milks and whipped cream. You can even mix it up with white chocolate or dark chocolate, too. In the family of cocoa is a vegan Mexican favorite called champurrado, made from masa and either water or milk. You can enhance the flavor with anise, cinnamon or nutmeg for a yummy twist. Gingerbread coconut milk hot cocoa is another delectable option to consider. Simply combine a can of coconut milk with cocoa powder and season with maple syrup, ginger, allspice and vanilla. Top with vegan whipped cream if desired. Tea Tea might be the oldest hot beverage on the planet. For thousands of years, native communities around the world have infused leaves into water to create a calming brew. While English breakfast and peppermint varieties are divine on their own, jazz them up a bit for an extra special treat. London Fog tea  latte is one such treat. To make it vegan, substitute your favorite milk product. Steep a cup of earl grey tea with some fresh lavender. Meanwhile, steam some alternative milk . Combine the two and use a milk frother if you desire. Top with sweetener and a dash of vanilla. Chai tea latte is another notable culinary combination. Make the tea and steam the milk separately. Then, froth the milk and combine with the tea. Add honey or another sweetener to taste and top with cinnamon or nutmeg. Related: 10 tasty and easy vegan dinner ideas Mulled wine Mulled wine is an alcoholic beverage made from wine infused with fruit. Cinnamon, cloves and orange are the typical options, but star anise, clementines and other citrus or sweeteners can be added too. To make mulled wine, simmer a bottle of inexpensive red wine on the stove with the added ingredients. You can alternately let the mulled wine simmer in a slow cooker. Eggnog Did you know you can make eggnog from scratch? Yep, you can. The great part of that news is that it means you can make it from your favorite vegan milk , too. Try coconut or cashew milk. The following recipe is from the Tasty Yummies website : 2 cups homemade cashew milk or other non-dairy milk of your choice ½ cup full fat coconut milk ? cup raw cashews, soaked overnight or for at least 30 minutes (optional) 4-6 Medjool dates 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 teaspoon freshly ground nutmeg pinch of ground cinnamon pinch of ground cloves pinch of sea salt Add all of the ingredients to your high-speed blender and process until smooth and creamy. Serve immediately as-is or add spiced rum, bourbon, brandy or whiskey for a spirited version. Add a pinch of freshly ground nutmeg on top. Wassail If you’ve never had wassail, you’re in for a treat. It’s kind of a combination of apple and cranberry cider with an extra kick of spices. It’s fabulous warmed, and you can even throw in a shot of rum or vodka for an extra warming affect. Winter is the perfect time to cozy up to a warm cup of goodness. Enjoy! Images via Shutterstock

Read the original here:
Get cozy this season with these 7 hot vegan drinks for winter

Mirrors, pods, printed panels: Solar innovation heats up

July 8, 2015 by  
Filed under Business, Green

Comments Off on Mirrors, pods, printed panels: Solar innovation heats up

As the market for solar energy grows, so, too, do the possibilities for generating that power.

Read the rest here:
Mirrors, pods, printed panels: Solar innovation heats up

Un-Shopping, reCommerce & Building a Business on Buying Less

January 27, 2012 by  
Filed under Business, Eco, Green

Comments Off on Un-Shopping, reCommerce & Building a Business on Buying Less

Gadget junkies: It's time to explore the possibilities and benefits of stepping off the treadmill of constantly upgrading to the latest and greatest gear, and setting your unwanted electronics free to find second lives.

Original post:
Un-Shopping, reCommerce & Building a Business on Buying Less

6 Prototypes With Interesting Uses For Bamboo and Silk From Buenos Aires

October 25, 2011 by  
Filed under Green, Recycle

Comments Off on 6 Prototypes With Interesting Uses For Bamboo and Silk From Buenos Aires

© Paula Alvarado The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Design Center recently organized a workshop to encourage local designers to explore the possibilities of bamboo and artisan silk as materials…. Read the full story on TreeHugger

View original post here: 
6 Prototypes With Interesting Uses For Bamboo and Silk From Buenos Aires

Disadvantages of Aviation Biofuels

October 14, 2011 by  
Filed under Eco, Eco Tech, Green

Comments Off on Disadvantages of Aviation Biofuels

In the past couple of years, we’ve seen many, many tests being carried out by numerous different airlines and agencies to study the possibilities of using biofuel as an entire replacement for or as a blend with conventional jet fuel. But biofuels as a replacement for petroleum-based jet fuel may not be the ideal solution. Biofuels are better than straight petroleum-based products, but there are drawbacks to biofuels , as well. Dedicating cropland to grow fuel crops can cut down on the available land and farming resources for food production. There are arguments against algae-based fuels, as well. They don’t compete with food for farmland, but the industrial infrastructure needed to produce algae-based fuel at scale is a daunting prospect. Of course, conversion to any new material is a daunting prospect. The development of new technologies will eventually be necessary, one way or another. To continue to research alternatives and to find the best mix of feedstock for alternative fuels is importatnt not only for aviation, but for all energy technologies. Virgin Atlantic, which is one of the many airlines to have tested biofuels , is now exploring a jet fuel replacement that, rather than using bio materials as feedstock, is derrived from waste industrial gas from steel production.  But if that relies on petroleum fuels as the original feedstock, then the long term viability of that process is also questionable. via: Treehugger and Guardian

See more here: 
Disadvantages of Aviation Biofuels

Five things to know about biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil

October 4, 2011 by  
Filed under Eco, Recycle

Comments Off on Five things to know about biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil

Ravi Kumar: Biodiesel Things to know about biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil Unbelievable but true! One liter of waste cooking oil can contaminate as much as one million liter of water. So, to reduce this fear and to use the cooking oil to the fullest, it can now be recycled and used to produce soap and biodiesel. Once we pour the oil in our vessel, the trash is subjected to throw either in dustbins or drain. But nobody knows this is not only clogging the sewerage and creating wreck havoc on local drains but also affecting wildlife some other way. If you are willing to know about recycling of cooking oil please continue reading this article. In Kilmarnock, Scotland and some other countries, the government has taken a good unique initiative wherein you can now pay for your bus fare by taking used oil to a recycling plant. This will not only help the denizens to play vital role in environment conservation but also keeps encouraging the proper recycling process. 1. How it works According to chemical scientists, “Cooking oil is purified fat of plant origin. It is usually found in liquid form at room temperature.” Proper disposal of used cooking oil is an important waste management concern. It hinders the oxygenation of water as oil is always lighter than water tends to spread into thin and broad membranes. 2. Recycling or Transesterification The chemical process under which cooking oil and kitchen grease goes for recycling is called Transesterification. Later it is converted into biodiesel. It is suggested to not to straight pour cooking oil into gas tank. Scientists have also been doing a lot of research to create some filters to control its evil effects. 3. Choose not to dump in sink Cooking oil should never be dumped into kitchen sink or in toilet bowl. The proper way to dispose of oil is to put it in a sealed non recyclable contained and discard it with regular garbage. Placing the container of oil in the refrigerator to harden also makes disposal easier and less messy. 4. Plumbing clogs sewer First and foremost reason for stooped up sewer pipes is excessive release of cooking oil and kitchen grease. Grease sticks to pipes and it badly chokes the sewerage and disrupted proper sewage flow. One should always keep in mind that it is not a temporary clogging but it is also somewhere affecting our ecology. 5. Can’t mix with motor oil It seems when oil is recycled, be it cooking oil or motor oil, it can be mixed further. But, it is not more than a misconception. You can recycle them separately but never mix recycled cooking oil and motor oil. They are different in nature and substances go through different recycling process and important thing is you will be disabled to extract them again. Use cold water Sometimes it becomes very difficult the kitchen grease to go down the drain. If it is small in amount or little more than that one should immediately shower cold water on it so that it solidifies and the possibilities of sticking in the pipeline decreases. Or else it can cause water contamination and obstruct smooth flow. Drop off points Some specific drop off points to dump cooking oil waste should be made at different points to avoid its disadvantages. Private agencies and some local communities should seriously think over recycling of cooking oil as how it can be provoked. Place it in front position and label it so that everyone can easily access it at home. Key points: Cooking oil may produce biodiesel if not disposed properly. As far as a lay man knows the cooking oil is used in the kitchen to cook the food, and if dieticians are to be believed, the cooking oil and grease harm one’s health too. But, don’t get surprised to know that improper disposal of the fats from our cooking oil can degrade our environment also. If you are somewhere damaging environment or causing ecological imbalance, it amounts to felony of different acts of environment protection and wildlife conservation. To safeguard our surroundings, there are various acts which have been made across most of the countries. Some of those common in almost many countries are: Environment Protection Act Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act Wild Life Act Forest Conservation Act

Go here to see the original:
Five things to know about biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil

Next Page »

Bad Behavior has blocked 1016 access attempts in the last 7 days.