Bottom trawling contributes more carbon emissions than air travel

March 22, 2021 by  
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The bottom trawling fishing technique is more harmful to the environment than previously thought, according to a new study. While it has long been known that this method captures fish indiscriminately, there was no available data on its carbon footprint. A recent study now shows that this method of fishing releases carbon emissions from ocean beds. The study, published in Nature , becomes the first to give a clear estimate of the carbon emissions caused by bottom trawling. In this technique, nets are dragged along the ocean floor, scraping for fish and other ocean creatures. This damages a significant part of fish habitats and releases CO2 that had been captured in the sea bed. Related: Super trawlers ravage UK’s protected waters amid pandemic The study broke the ocean into 50-square-kilometer blocks and used collected data to measure how much each square contributes to marine life in terms of fish stock, biodiversity and salinity among other aspects. Researchers estimate that bottom trawling releases about one gigaton of carbon emissions into the atmosphere every year, meaning this method of fishing alone contributes more carbon to the atmosphere than the aviation industry at pre-pandemic levels. This practice also impedes the ability of the sea bed to continue absorbing and storing carbon. On top of the pollution, damaged habitats for fish and indiscriminate capturing of species leads to diversity degradation. According to Enric Sala , lead author, marine biologist and National Geographic’s Explorer in Residence, the team had originally set out to find ways of discrediting this method of fishing to encourage those in the industry and governments to put an end to it. Scientists have been trying to petition governments against bottom trawling due to the effects it has on marine habitats. Bottom trawling is also one of the most  expensive methods of fishing  and the most destructive. Sala explained that most fishing operators that depend on bottom trawling rely on government subsidies to remain afloat. The team hopes this research will lead people to think twice about allowing bottom trawling to continue. + Nature Via Time Image via andrasgs

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Leveraging the ocean’s carbon removal potential

November 11, 2020 by  
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Leveraging the ocean’s carbon removal potential Katie Lebling Wed, 11/11/2020 – 00:30 To meet the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius 2.7 degrees F), greenhouse gas emissions must reach net-zero by mid-century. Achieving this not only will require reducing existing emissions, but also removing carbon dioxide already in the air. How much carbon to remove from the atmosphere will depend on emissions in the coming years, but estimates point to around 10 billion-20 billion tons of CO 2 per year through 2100, globally. This is a tremendous amount, considering that the United States emitted 5.4 billion tons of CO 2 in 2018. As the need for climate action becomes more urgent, the ocean is gaining attention as a potential part of the solution . Approaches such as investing in offshore energy production, conserving coastal ecosystems and increasing consumption of sustainable ocean-based protein offer opportunities to reduce emissions. In addition to these opportunities, a range of ocean-based carbon removal approaches could help capture and store billions of tons of carbon. Importantly, these approaches would not increase ocean acidification. The ocean absorbs just under one-third of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions, which is contributing to a rise in ocean acidification and making it more difficult for organisms such as oysters and corals to build shells. The ocean absorbs just under one-third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, contributing to a rise in ocean acidification. A few options for increasing the ocean’s capacity to store carbon also may provide co-benefits, such as increasing biodiversity and reducing acidification. However, many approaches remain contentious due to uncertainties around potential ecological impacts, governance and other risks. If research efforts increase to improve understanding in these areas, a combination of approaches could help address the global climate crisis. Ocean-based ways to remove CO 2 from the atmosphere Proposed methods for increasing the ocean’s ability to remove and store carbon dioxide — including biological, chemical and electrochemical concepts — vary in technical maturity, permanence, public acceptance and risk. Note: This graphic represents the general types of proposed approaches, but may not reflect every proposal. 1. Biological approaches Biological approaches, which leverage the power of photosynthesis to capture CO 2 , offer a few approaches for carbon removal. Ecosystem restoration Restoring coastal blue carbon ecosystems , including salt marshes, mangroves and seagrasses, can increase the amount of carbon stored in coastal sediments. Globally, the carbon removal potential of coastal blue carbon ecosystem restoration is around a few hundred million tons of CO 2 per year by 2050, which is relatively small compared to the need. However, ample co-benefits — such as reducing coastal erosion and flooding, improving water quality and supporting livelihoods and tourism — make it worth pursuing. Restoring coastal blue carbon ecosystems, including salt marshes such as this one, can help store carbon in addition to other restoration benefits. Photo by Bre Smith/Unsplash Large-scale seaweed cultivation Another proposed approach is large-scale seaweed cultivation , as seaweed captures carbon through photosynthesis. While there is evidence that wild seaweed already contributes to carbon removal, there is potential to cultivate and harvest seaweed for use in a range of products, including food (human and animal), fuel and fertilizer. The full extent of carbon removal potential from these applications is uncertain, as many of these products would return carbon within the seaweed to the environment during consumption. Yet, these applications could lower emission intensity compared to conventional production processes. Seaweed cultivation also can provide an economic return that could support near-term industry growth. One interesting application is adding certain seaweeds to feed for ruminant farm animals, which significantly could reduce their methane emissions. Methane has especially high climate warming potential, and methane emissions from ruminants contribute roughly 120 MtCO1e per year in the United States. Emerging research shows that certain types of red seaweeds can reduce ruminant emissions by more than 50 percent, although more research is necessary to show consistent long-term reductions and understand whether large-scale cultivation efforts are successful. In addition to reducing emissions, seaweed cultivation also may reduce ocean acidification. In some places, this application is already in use for shellfish aquaculture to reduce acidification and improve shellfish growth. Understanding potential ecosystem risks is critical to implementing this approach at scale. Potential risks include changes to water movement patterns; changes to light, nutrient and oxygen availability; altered pH levels; impacts from manmade structures for growing; and impacts of monoculture cultivation, which can affect existing marine flora and fauna. Continued small-scale pilot testing is necessary to understand these ecosystem impacts and bring down costs for cultivation, harvesting and transport. Iron fertilization A more controversial and divisive idea is iron fertilization , which involves adding trace amounts of iron to certain parts of the ocean, spurring phytoplankton growth. The phytoplankton would take in atmospheric CO 2 as they grow, with a portion expected to eventually sink to the ocean floor, resulting in permanent storage of that carbon in ocean sediments About a dozen experiments indicate varying levels of carbon sequestration efficacy, but the approach remains compelling to some due to its low cost. Although iron fertilization theoretically could store large amounts of carbon for a comparatively low cost, it also could cause significant negative ecological impacts, such as toxic algal blooms that can reduce oxygen levels, block sunlight and harm sea life. Additionally, researchers are hesitant to pursue this method due to a fraught history, including one experiment that potentially violated international law. Iron fertilization, which involves adding trace amounts of iron to certain parts of the ocean, spurring phytoplankton growth. Because of the relatively low cost, there is also the risk of a single actor’s conducting large-scale fertilization and potentially causing large-scale ecological damage. Given that this method remains contentious, a critical first step is creating a clear international governance structure to continue research. Iron fertilization continues to face scientific uncertainties about its efficacy and ecosystem impacts that, if pursued, would require at-sea testing to resolve. 2. Chemical approaches Chemical approaches, namely alkalinity enhancement, involve adding different types of minerals to the ocean to react with dissolved carbon dioxide and turn it into dissolved bicarbonates. As dissolved carbon dioxide converts into dissolved bicarbonates, the concentration of dissolved CO 2 lowers relative to the air, allowing the ocean to absorb more CO 2 from the air at the ocean-air boundary. Although mineral sources are abundant, accessing them would require significant energy to extract, grind down and transport. While alkalinity enhancement is in use at small scales to improve water quality for calcifying creatures such as oysters and other shellfish, large scale applications would require pilot testing to understand ecosystem impacts. Additional research also will help map accessible and suitable sources of alkalinity and determine how to most effectively apply it. 3. Electrochemical approaches A handful of electrochemical concepts also store carbon as dissolved bicarbonate. Unlike chemical approaches, electrochemical approaches do so by running electric currents through seawater. Variations of electrochemical approaches also could produce valuable hydrogen or concentrated CO 2 for industrial use or storage. Scaling up this approach would depend on the availability of low-carbon energy sources in suitable locations. Additional research will help map such sources and analyze potential benefits, such as hydrogen production. Governance and social considerations of ocean-based carbon removal Ensuring appropriate governance frameworks — both national and international — for ocean-based carbon removal approaches will be a critical pre-condition before many are ready to scale. International legal frameworks for the ocean, such as the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea and the London Convention and Protocol, predate the concept of ocean carbon dioxide removal. As a result, these frameworks are retroactively applied to these approaches, leading to differing interpretations and a lack of clarity in some cases. Some legal scholars suggest amending existing legal instruments to more directly govern ocean carbon removal, including carbon removal in ongoing negotiations for new international agreements or shifting governance to another international body entirely. Robust environmental safeguards, including transparent monitoring and reporting, also must be in place. Lastly, ocean carbon removal approaches should not move forward without first considering the impacts on local communities and indigenous populations. Community acceptance of potential pilot testing and impacts on coastal communities also must be a pre-condition to moving forward at scale. Climate action must include the ocean As the world seeks effective tools for the climate action toolbox, employing approaches on land and at sea would prevent over-reliance on any one approach and spread the carbon removal burden over larger systems. However, before any large-scale application, ocean-based carbon removal approaches require continued research to better understand their effectiveness, cost, capacity and ancillary impacts. Such research will ensure a strong scientific foundation from which to pursue these concepts, while minimizing unintended impacts on ocean ecosystems. If understood and effectively developed and implemented, ocean-based carbon removal approaches could prove valuable to reaching net-zero and avoiding the worst effects of climate change. Pull Quote The ocean absorbs just under one-third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, contributing to a rise in ocean acidification. Iron fertilization, which involves adding trace amounts of iron to certain parts of the ocean, spurring phytoplankton growth. Contributors Eliza Northrop Topics Oceans & Fisheries Carbon Removal World Resources Institute Featured in featured block (1 article with image touted on the front page or elsewhere) Off Duration 0 Sponsored Article Off GreenBiz collage via Unsplash Close Authorship

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Leveraging the ocean’s carbon removal potential

Staying Eco-Friendly With the KonMari Method

February 28, 2019 by  
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In the wake of professional organizer Marie Kondo’s bestselling book, … The post Staying Eco-Friendly With the KonMari Method appeared first on Earth911.com.

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The Sherlock Holmes Method for Raising Your Recycling Savvy

October 5, 2018 by  
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I try to work recycling into my daily routine, but … The post The Sherlock Holmes Method for Raising Your Recycling Savvy appeared first on Earth911.com.

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Aggregation paves the way for a more diverse corporate renewables market

September 4, 2018 by  
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Buyers not previously engaged in renewables will gain confidence in knowing that other companies have used this method.

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Aggregation paves the way for a more diverse corporate renewables market

Method’s Saskia van Gendt on honing operations

January 8, 2016 by  
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The head of “greenskeeping” at Method talks about her job of integrating best sustainability practices into all the operations of the cleaning products company.

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Inside the Climate Bonds Initiative with Sean Kidney

September 16, 2015 by  
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The groups involved represent $34 trillion of investors. For CGI’s co-founder, it’s critical to drive standards, policies and market education.

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Meet the major players in the circular economy

September 16, 2015 by  
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Airbnb, Dell, Method InterContinental Hotels are among the leaders. Does your company have a part to play?

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Meet the major players in the circular economy

Modern open-plan home in Jackson Hole reduces construction waste with six prefab units

July 7, 2015 by  
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Read the rest of Modern open-plan home in Jackson Hole reduces construction waste with six prefab units Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: Chris Pardo Design: Elemental Architecture , eco design , green design , jackson hole , Method Homes , modular home , prefabricated home , sustainable design

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Modern open-plan home in Jackson Hole reduces construction waste with six prefab units

Gigantic swimmable ball pit takes over D.C.’s National Building Museum

July 7, 2015 by  
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Read the rest of Gigantic swimmable ball pit takes over D.C.’s National Building Museum Permalink | Add to del.icio.us | digg Post tags: art installation , ball pit national building museum , beach in washington dc , indoor beach , National Building Museum , National Building Museum beach , national building museum summer block party , Snarkitecture , the beach by snarkitecture

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