Yara invests in green ammonia for renewable energy

March 2, 2021 by  
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One of the world’s biggest ammonia producers in the world is preparing to ramp up its so-called “green ammonia” production. By using hydropower with its existing ammonia plant, Norway’s Yara is about to manufacture green ammonia commercially. Last week, Yara announced its partnership with Aker Horizons and the Norwegian utility company Statkraft for producing green hydrogen at its plant in Porsgrunn, Norway . “Yara’s Porsgrunn plant is well set up for large-scale production and export, allowing Norway to quickly play a role in the hydrogen economy,” said Yara president and CEO Svein tore Holsether, as reported by Clean Technica. “Constructing a new ammonia plant and associated infrastructure is typically a capital-intensive process, but by utilizing Yara’s existing ammonia plant and associated infrastructure in Porsgrunn, valued at USD 450 million, the total capital requirement for the project is significantly reduced compared with alternative greenfield locations.” Related: Scotland to become first country to test 100% green hydrogen The colorless, noxious gas is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is used to manufacture many common products. Ammonia occurs naturally in air, soil, animals and humans. When living bodies break down protein-containing foods, the parts separate into amino acids and ammonia, which is then converted into urea. If you’ve ever had a cat’s litter box in your house, you’re familiar with the smell of naturally occurring ammonia. Its most common industrial use is, fittingly enough, as fertilizer, accounting for about 90% of ammonia production. Other uses include as a refrigerant gas, in water purification and wastewater treatment, as a stabilizer and neutralizer in food and beverage industries and as part of pesticides, dyes, plastics and explosives. Green ammonia is inextricably tied to the much-touted new green hydrogen economy. Because the availability of low-cost renewable energy has increased, the process of electrolysis — using an electric current in water to split off the hydrogen gas — has become more attainable. “Large-scale production will reduce cost of the electrolysis route,” Holsether explained. For hydrogen to be shipped worldwide, it first must be converted into ammonia. Yara has also been toying with the idea of building a ship that runs on ammonia fuel. + Yara Via Clean Technica and Chemical Safety Facts Image via Yara

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Researchers develop hydrogen paste that could fuel vehicles

February 17, 2021 by  
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A team of researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute of Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM) has developed a hydrogen paste that could one day be used to fuel vehicles. In the Germany-based institute’s latest development, the team came up with a product it calls POWERPASTE, which could be revolutionary in the transport sector. The product is created from a magnesium base and would be stored in vehicles in the form of a cartridge. Those who wish to use this form of fuel for vehicles would be required to purchase hydrogen paste cartridges . To refuel, a driver would swap a used hydrogen cartridge with a new one and then fill the tank with water. Related: Hydrogen fuel cells — good or bad for the environment? Marcus Vogt, research associate at IFAM, explained how the paste works. “POWERPASTE stores hydrogen in a chemical form at room temperature and atmospheric pressure to be then released on-demand,” Vogt said. The researchers say that the paste offers a safe, convenient and affordable hydrogen fuel option for small vehicles. The paste begins to decompose at 480°F, meaning it can be used in cars even in the hottest regions of the world. The POWERPASTE has been praised by the developers for its capacity. “POWERPASTE … has a huge energy storage density,” Vogt said. “It is substantially higher than that of a 700 bar high-pressure tank. And compared to batteries, it has 10 times the energy storage density.” Given that the paste is similar to gasoline in terms of range, it could be a viable alternative. As a result, researchers are proposing the use of the paste in smaller vehicles. They also say that its use could be extended to drones. In recent years, many companies and countries have been shifting attention to hydrogen-based energy solutions. In a bid to avoid the problems caused by fossil fuels , hydrogen technologies such as POWERPASTE are being developed. + IFAM Via Business Insider Image via IFAM

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Global Forest Watch can now see through clouds to stop deforestation

February 17, 2021 by  
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Last year, the Global Forest Watch tracking system starting allowing people to help monitor deforestation in far-flung parts of the world while sitting at home with their laptop. But the satellite program had a flaw: perpetrators could hide behind cloud cover. The system recently announced a new upgrade that uses radar to see right through the clouds. “Essentially, the satellites are sending radio waves to Earth and collecting how they come back,” said Mikaela Weisse, one of site administrators, as reported by NPR . Operated by the European Space Agency, the instrument is delivering sharper pictures than ever. “If we can detect deforestation and other changes as soon as they’re happening, then there’s the possibility to send in law enforcement or what have you, to stop it before it goes further.” Related: You can help monitor Amazon deforestation from your couch The software scans for changes, such as trees disappearing, and issues alerts when it detects something fishy. About once a week, the satellites re-scan each place that they are monitoring. Global Forest Watch has been popular with citizen scientists — ordinary people without training as data or climate experts — who want to do their part to slow deforestation. The app depends on a combination of artificial and human intelligence to monitor the world’s forests. Preliminary studies indicate that the monitoring is paying off. There’s been less forest -clearing in some places when people know their illegal actions are being observed. Eventually, evildoers figured out that clouds would cloak their deeds, so they would clear land under cover of rain, according to Weisse. This was an especially big problem in the tropics. “In Indonesia, my impression is, it’s the rainy season almost all the time,” Weisse said. “There’s almost always cloud cover.” Global Forest Watch is available for anybody to login and see deforestation in real time. Let’s hope that big companies that have pledged not to support deforestation will use this tool to live up to their promises. + Global Forest Watch Via NPR Image via Gryffyn M.

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Could green hydrogen be key to a carbon-free economy?

November 19, 2020 by  
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Could green hydrogen be key to a carbon-free economy? Jim Robbins Thu, 11/19/2020 – 01:30 This article originally was published on Yale Environment 360 . Saudi Arabia is constructing a futuristic city in the desert on the Red Sea called Neom. The $500 billion city — complete with flying taxis and robotic domestic help — is being built from scratch and will be home to a million people. And what energy product will be used both to power this city and sell to the world? Not oil. The Saudis are going big on something called green hydrogen — a carbon-free fuel made from water by using renewably produced electricity to split hydrogen molecules from oxygen molecules. This summer, a large U.S. gas company, Air Products & Chemicals, announced that as part of Neom it has been building a green hydrogen plant in Saudi Arabia for the last four years. The plant is powered by 4 gigawatts from wind and solar projects that sprawl across the desert. It claims to be the world’s largest green hydrogen project — and more Saudi plants are on the drawing board. Green hydrogen? The Saudis aren’t alone in believing it’s the next big thing in the energy future. While the fuel is barely on the radar in the United States, around the world a green hydrogen rush is underway, and many companies, investors, governments and environmentalists believe it is an energy source that could help end the reign of fossil fuels and slow the world’s warming trajectory. “It is very promising,” said Rachel Fakhry, an energy analyst for the Natural Resources Defense Council. Experts such as Fakhry say that while wind and solar energy can provide the electricity to power homes and electric cars, green hydrogen could be an ideal power source for energy-intensive industries such as concrete and steel manufacturing, as well as parts of the transportation sector that are more difficult to electrify. “The last 15 percent of the economy is hard to clean up — aviation, shipping, manufacturing, long-distance trucking,” Fakhry said in an interview. “Green hydrogen can do that.” Europe, which has an economy saddled with high energy prices and is heavily dependent on Russian natural gas, is embracing green hydrogen by providing funding for construction of electrolysis plants and other hydrogen infrastructure. Germany has allocated the largest share of its clean energy stimulus funds to green hydrogen. “It is the missing part of the puzzle to a fully decarbonized economy,” the European Commission wrote in a July strategy document. Germany has allocated the largest share of its clean energy stimulus funds to green hydrogen. Hydrogen’s potential as a fuel source has been touted for decades, but the technology never has gotten off the ground on a sizeable scale — and with good reason, according to skeptics. They argue that widespread adoption of green hydrogen technologies has faced serious obstacles, most notably that hydrogen fuels need renewable energy to be green, which will require a massive expansion of renewable generation to power the electrolysis plants that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Green hydrogen is also hard to store and transport without a pipeline. And right now in some places, such as the U.S., hydrogen is a lot more expensive than other fuels such as natural gas. While it has advantages, said Michael Liebreich, a Bloomberg New Energy Finance analyst in the United Kingdom and a green hydrogen skeptic, “it displays an equally impressive list of disadvantages.” “It does not occur in nature so it requires energy to separate,” Liebreich wrote in a pair of recent essays for BloombergNEF. “Its storage requires compression to 700 times atmospheric pressure, refrigeration to 253 degrees Celsius… It carries one quarter the energy per unit volume of natural gas… It can embrittle metal; it escapes through the tiniest leaks and yes, it really is explosive.” In spite of these problems, Liebreich wrote, green hydrogen still “holds a vice-like grip over the imaginations of techno-optimists.” Ben Gallagher, an energy analyst at Wood McKenzie who studies green hydrogen, said the fuel is so new that its future remains unclear. “No one has any true idea what is going on here,” he said. “It’s speculation at this point. Right now it’s difficult to view this as the new oil. However, it could make up an important part of the overall fuel mix.” Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical in the universe. Two atoms of hydrogen paired with an atom of oxygen creates water. Alone, though, hydrogen is an odorless and tasteless gas, and highly combustible. Hydrogen derived from methane — usually from natural gas, but also coal and biomass — was pioneered in World War II by Germany, which has no petroleum deposits. But CO2 is emitted in manufacturing hydrogen from methane and so it’s not climate friendly; hydrogen manufactured this way is known as gray hydrogen. Green is the new kid on the hydrogen block, and because it’s manufactured with renewable energy, it’s CO2-free. Moreover, using renewable energy to create the fuel can help solve the problem of intermittency that plagues wind and solar power, and so it is essentially efficient storage. When demand for renewables is low, during the spring and fall, excess electricity can be used to power the electrolysis needed to split hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Then the hydrogen can be stored or sent down a pipeline. The last 15 percent of the economy is hard to clean up — aviation, shipping, manufacturing, long-distance trucking. Green hydrogen can do that. Such advantages are fueling growing interest in global green hydrogen. Across Europe, the Middle East and Asia, more countries and companies are embracing this high-quality fuel. The U.S. lags behind because other forms of energy, such as natural gas, are much cheaper, but several new projects are underway, including a green hydrogen power plant in Utah that will replace two aging coal-fired plants and produce electricity for southern California. In Japan, a new green hydrogen plant, one of the world’s largest, just opened near Fukishima — an intentionally symbolic location given the plant’s proximity to the site of the 2011 nuclear disaster. It will be used to power fuel cells, both in vehicles and at stationary sites. An energy consortium in Australia just announced plans to build a project called the Asian Renewable Energy Hub in Pilbara that would use 1,743 large wind turbines and 30 square miles of solar panels to run a 26-gigawatt electrolysis factory that would create green hydrogen to send to Singapore. As Europe intensifies its decarbonization drive, it, too, is betting big on the fuel. The European Union just drafted a strategy for a large-scale green hydrogen expansion, although it hasn’t been officially adopted yet. But in its $550-billion clean energy plan, the EU is including funds for new green hydrogen electrolyzers and transport and storage technology for the fuel. “Large-scale deployment of clean hydrogen at a fast pace is key for the EU to achieve its high climate ambitions,” the European Commission wrote. The Middle East, which has the world’s cheapest wind and solar power, is angling to be a major player in green hydrogen. “Saudi Arabia has ridiculously low-cost renewable power,” said Thomas Koch Blank, leader of the Rocky Mountain Institute’s Breakthrough Technology Program. “The sun is shining pretty reliably every day and the wind is blowing pretty reliably every night. It’s hard to beat.” BloombergNEF estimates that to generate enough green hydrogen to meet a quarter of the world’s energy needs would take more electricity than the world generates now from all sources and an investment of $11 trillion in production and storage. That’s why the focus for now is on the 15 percent of the economy with energy needs not easily supplied by wind and solar power, such as heavy manufacturing, long-distance trucking and fuel for cargo ships and aircraft. The Fukushima Hydrogen Energy Research Field (FH2R), a green hydrogen facility that can generate as much as 1,200 normal meter cubed (Nm3) of hydrogen per hour, opened in Japan in March. Source:  TOSHIBA ESS The energy density of green hydrogen is three times that of jet fuel, making it a promising zero-emissions technology for aircraft. But Airbus, the European airplane manufacturer, recently released a statement saying that significant problems need to be overcome, including safely storing hydrogen on aircraft, the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure at airports, and cost. Experts say that new technologies will be needed to solve these problems. Nevertheless, Airbus believes green hydrogen will play an important role in decarbonizing air transport. “Cost-competitive green hydrogen and cross-industry partnerships will be mandatory to bring zero-emission flying to reality,” said Glen Llewellyn, vice president of Zero Emission Aircraft for Airbus. Hydrogen-powered aircraft could be flying by 2035, he said. In the U.S., where energy prices are low, green hydrogen costs about three times as much as natural gas, although that price doesn’t factor in the environmental damage caused by fossil fuels. The price of green hydrogen is falling, however. In 10 years, green hydrogen is expected to be comparable in cost to natural gas in the United States. A major driver of green hydrogen development in the U.S. is California’s aggressive push toward a carbon-neutral future. The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, for example, is helping fund the construction of the green hydrogen-fueled power plant in Utah. It’s scheduled to go online in 2025. A company called SGH2 recently announced it would build a large facility to produce green hydrogen in southern California. Instead of using electrolysis, though, it will use waste gasification, which heats many types of waste to high temperatures that reduce them to their molecular compounds. Those molecules then bind with hydrogen, and SGH2 claims it can make green hydrogen more cheaply than using electrolysis. California officials also see green hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels for diesel vehicles. The state passed a Low Carbon Fuel Standard in 2009 to promote electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. Last month, a group of heavy-duty vehicle and energy industry officials formed the Western States Hydrogen Alliance o press for rapid deployment of hydrogen fuel cell technology and infrastructure to replace diesel trucks, buses, locomotives and aircraft. The price of green hydrogen is falling. In 10 years, green hydrogen is expected to be comparable in cost to natural gas in the United States. “Hydrogen fuel cells will power the future of zero-emission mobility in these heavy-duty, hard-to-electrify sectors,” said Roxana Bekemohammadi, executive director of the Western States Hydrogen Alliance. “That fact is indisputable. This new alliance exists to ensure government and industry can work efficiently together to accelerate the coming of this revolution.” Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Energy announced a $100 million investment to help develop large, affordable electrolyzers and to create new fuel cell technologies for long-haul trucks. In Australia, the University of New South Wales, in partnership with a global engineering firm, GHD, has created a home-based system called LAVO that uses solar energy to generate and store green hydrogen in home systems. The hydrogen is converted back into electricity as needed. All these developments, said Blank of the Rocky Mountain Institute, are “really good news. Green hydrogen has high potential to address many of the things that keep people awake at night because the climate change problem seems unsolvable.” Pull Quote Germany has allocated the largest share of its clean energy stimulus funds to green hydrogen. The last 15 percent of the economy is hard to clean up — aviation, shipping, manufacturing, long-distance trucking. Green hydrogen can do that. The price of green hydrogen is falling. In 10 years, green hydrogen is expected to be comparable in cost to natural gas in the United States. Topics Energy & Climate Renewable Energy Wind Power Solar Hydrogen Featured in featured block (1 article with image touted on the front page or elsewhere) Off Duration 0 Sponsored Article Off Hydrogen’s potential as a fuel source has been touted for decades, but the technology has never gotten off the ground on a sizeable scale — and with good reason, according to skeptics. Photo by petrmalinak on Shutterstock.

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Could green hydrogen be key to a carbon-free economy?

Green hydrogen could curb one-third of fossil fuel and industry emissions by 2050

April 7, 2020 by  
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That’s according to a BloombergNEF report that calls policy support for the hydrogen economy “insufficient.”

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Green hydrogen could curb one-third of fossil fuel and industry emissions by 2050

Green hydrogen could curb one-third of fossil fuel and industry emissions by 2050

April 7, 2020 by  
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That’s according to a BloombergNEF report that calls policy support for the hydrogen economy “insufficient.”

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Green hydrogen could curb one-third of fossil fuel and industry emissions by 2050

Green hydrogen could curb one-third of fossil fuel and industry emissions by 2050

April 7, 2020 by  
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That’s according to a BloombergNEF report that calls policy support for the hydrogen economy “insufficient.”

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Green hydrogen could curb one-third of fossil fuel and industry emissions by 2050

The truth about hydrogen, the latest, trendiest low-carbon solution

August 30, 2019 by  
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As misconceptions about the emerging tech abound, we can dispel common myths to encourage hydrogen’s potential for decarbonization.

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St. Lucia’s sustainability map: where blue, green and orange economies merge

August 30, 2019 by  
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A Q&A with St. Lucia’s Minister of Sustainable Development.

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St. Lucia’s sustainability map: where blue, green and orange economies merge

Hype and hope for hydrogen

July 18, 2019 by  
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Hydrogen is inching toward commercial viability and scalability, with new technologies that could support global decarbonization.

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Hype and hope for hydrogen

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